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founder

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Maritime History.

Of a ship, to sink at sea, generally understood to be by the flooding of its hull either through springing a leak or through striking a rock. Other causes of a ship sinking, such as...

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Euclides (1), of Megara, founder of the Megarian school, c. 450–380 BCE

Gwilym Ellis Lane Owen.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 193 words.

Euclides (1) of *Megara (c. 450–380 bce), associate of *Socrates and founder of the *Megarian school. He was present at the death of Socrates and thereafter housed Plato and other members...

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Zeno (2) , of Citium, founder of Stoicism

Julia Annas.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 208 words.

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Metrodorus (3) , of Lampsacus, one of the founders of Epicureanism, c. 331–278 bce

William David Ross and Dirk Obbink.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 178 words.

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Anaxarchus

D. Sedley.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 109 words.

Anaxarchus, of *Abdera, a Democritean philosopher (see democritus) and teacher of *Pyrrhon (the putative founder of Scepticism). He accompanied *Alexander (3) the Great on his Asian campaigns—a...

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Introduction

Patricia Curd and Daniel W. Graham.

in The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy

October 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 10046 words.

This article is concerned with the first philosophers and scientists in the Western tradition. It studies the Presocratic philosophers. One can approach early Greek philosophy through...

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Antisthenes (1), Greek teacher, mid-5th cent.–mid-4th cent. BCE

C. C. W. Taylor.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 383 words.

Antisthenes (1) (mid-5th–mid-4th cent. bce), associate of *Socrates, one of those named by *Plato (1) as having been present at his final conversation. A professional teacher, he continued the...

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Aristippus (1)

C. C. W. Taylor.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 257 words.

Aristippus (1), from *Cyrene, an associate of *Socrates. His writings are said to have included dialogues and historical works, and he is said to have been the first of Socrates' associates to charge...

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dialectic

D. Sedley.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 529 words.

Dialectic, διαλεκτική (sc. ἐπιστήμη or τέχνη): the science of conducting a philosophical dialogue (διαλέγεσθαι, ‘to converse’) by exploring the consequences of premises asserted or conceded by an...

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Philosophers by Design I

Roslyn Weiss.

in Philosophers in the "Republic"

August 2012; p ublished online August 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 17332 words.

In Books 2–5 Socrates constructs for Glaucon (and, to a lesser extent, for Adeimantus) a city that he will later call “the beautiful city” (kallipolis—7.527c). Callipolis is a city marked...

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Pyrrhon

Gisela Striker.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 406 words.

Pyrrhon of Elis (c.365–275bce), the founder of Greek Scepticism (see sceptics). He was a painter early in his life, but then studied with a certain Bryson (it is not clear which) and with the...

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Sceptics

Gisela Striker.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy. 688 words.

Philosophers who hold no doctrine and suspend judgement on everything. The label σκεπτικός (‘inquirer’, but used with the implicit understanding that the inquiry does not end) was introduced in the...

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The Severans

Stéphane Benoist.

in Classics

P ublished online October 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 12488 words.

The reigns of the Severi (193–235), from Septimius Severus (the founder of the dynasty) to the last emperor Severus Alexander, symbolize the evolution of the Roman Empire, after the two...

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Leucippus's Atomism

Daniel W. Graham.

in The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy

October 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy; Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 9584 words.

The founder of atomic theory, according to Aristotle and Theophrastus, is Leucippus. His very existence has been called into question. Three of the best minds of nineteenth-century...

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Cynicism and Stoicism

Christopher Gill.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

January 2013; p ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Classical Philosophy. 10353 words.

This chapter discusses the ethical theories of Cynics and Stoics. Cynicism traces its origins to Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412/403–c. 324/321 BC), the most colourful and outrageous of all such...

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Plotinus

Richard Dufour.

in Classics

P ublished online December 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 6317 words.

Plotinus (205–270 ce) is considered to be the founder of Neoplatonism. Pupil of Ammonius Saccas, he taught in Rome from 244 to 269. Amelius and Porphyry are his most renowned students. We...

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Cato the Censor

Enrica Sciarrino.

in Classics

P ublished online November 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 5842 words.

Marcus Porcius Cato, also known as “Cato the Censor” and “Cato the Elder” (b. 234–d. 149 bce), was one of the most prominent figures in the political and cultural life of Rome in the first...

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Solon

Charlotte Schubert.

in Classics

P ublished online June 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 6344 words.

Solon’s reforms, laws, and poems were famous in democratic Athens. For a long time, he was considered the founder of democracy: it was believed that he had established the property classes;...

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Tertullian

Vincent Hunink and Stéphanie Binder.

in Classics

P ublished online October 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 8755 words.

Tertullian is the first major Latin author of Christianity (and his sparse writings in Greek are lost). He was born in Carthage (c. 160 ce) and died at a relatively high age (c. 220). As...

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Augustus

Alison E. Cooley.

in Classics

P ublished online May 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 21171 words.

Augustus, famous as Rome’s first emperor, came to power in the aftermath of his defeat of Antony and Cleopatra. The benefit of hindsight allows us to view him as the founder of a new...

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Velleius Paterculus

Eleanor Cowan.

in Classics

P ublished online June 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 5061 words.

Velleius Paterculus was a Roman historian, soldier, and senator. His only surviving work was composed during the regime of Tiberius. Almost everything we know about Velleius comes from his...

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