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founder

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Maritime History.

Of a ship, to sink at sea, generally understood to be by the flooding of its hull either through springing a leak or through striking a rock. Other causes of a ship sinking, such as...

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Seleucus (1) I Nicator, 'Conqueror', founder of the Seleucid empire, c. 358–281 BCE

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White and R. J. van der Spek.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 737 words.

Seleucus (1) I Nicator, founder of the *Seleucid empire, fought with *Alexander (3) the Great as ‘companion’ (hetairos), from 326 as commander of the elite corps of hypaspistai; after Alexander's...

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Mehmet Ali (c. 1769–1849), Ottoman viceroy and founder of the Egyptian royal family

Eugene Rogan.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Middle Eastern Politics. 1329 words.

Mehmet Ali (c. 1769–1849), Ottoman viceroy and founder of the Egyptian royal family, was born in the Macedonian port of Kavalla, though the actual date of his birth has been obscured....

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Hussein ibn Ali (1853–1931), emir of Mecca and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of the Hejaz

Michael T. Thornhill.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 1862 words.

Hussein ibn Ali (1853–1931), emir of Mecca and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of the Hejaz, was born in Constantinople in 1853, the first son of Ali ibn Muhammad (d. 1861) and Salha. His...

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Abdullah ibn Hussein ['Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn] (1882–1951), emir of Transjordan and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan

Michael T. Thornhill.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 1807 words.

Abdullah ibn Hussein ['Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn] (1882–1951), emir of Transjordan and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan, was born in February 1882 in Mecca in the Ottoman province...

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Cineas (1) , founder of Ai Khanoum (Afghanistan)

Simon Hornblower.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 91 words.

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Diodotus (1) I , founder of the Graeco-Bactrian monarchy

Frank Holt.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 108 words.

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Modern Saudi Arabia

Fred H. Lawson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 8194 words.

Modern Saudi Arabia emerged in the 1920s as the successor to a collection of local political entities on the Arabian peninsula, whose histories are only starting to be investigated....

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Tyre

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 271 words.

Tyre, a major city in southern Phoenicia (see phoenicians) with a large territory, built on an island but extending ashore, and equipped with two harbours. It is famed as the main founder of...

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Sandracottus

Awadh Kishore Narain and Romila Thapar.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 374 words.

Sandracottus, the Greek form of the Sanskrit name Chandragupta, said to be of humble origin and founder of the *Mauryan empire. In c.324/21 bce, with the help of Chanakya, sometimes known as...

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Cyrus (1), 'the Great', Persian king, d. 530 BCE

Pierre Briant.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 297 words.

Cyrus the Great (OP Kuruš), son of *Cambyses I, who became c.557 bce king of the small kingdom of Anshan in *Persia. Beginning in 550 he fought extensive campaigns in which he conquered,...

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Achaemenids

Pierre Briant.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 298 words.

The term, as used by Herodotus (1. 125), refers to one of the three clans (phrētrē) of the Pasargadae tribe to which the Persian kings belonged; its eponymous ancestor was supposedly Achaemenes (Hdt....

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Pergamum

Antony Spawforth and Charlotte Roueché.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Historical Geography; Middle Eastern History. 656 words.

Pergamum, in Mysia c.24 km. (15 miles) from the *Aegean, a natural fortress of great strategic importance commanding the rich plain of the river Caïcus; important historically as the capital of the...

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Byzantium

Alexander John Graham and Stephen Mitchell.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Historical Geography; Byzantine Studies; Middle Eastern History. 462 words.

Byzantium, a famous city on the European side of the south end of the *Bosporus (1), between the Golden Horn and the *Propontis. The Greek city occupied only the eastern tip of the promontory, in the...

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