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founder

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Maritime History.

Of a ship, to sink at sea, generally understood to be by the flooding of its hull either through springing a leak or through striking a rock. Other causes of a ship sinking, such as...

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Hakuin Ekaku

Masaki Matsubara.

in Buddhism

P ublished online July 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 24187 words.

Hakuin Ekaku 白隠慧鶴 (1686–1769: also known as Zen Master Shinki Dokumyō 神機独妙禅師 and National Master Shōshū 正宗國師) is a seminal figure who occupies a prominent place in the history of Japanese...

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Goenka

Frank Neubert.

in Buddhism

P ublished online July 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 2560 words.

Satya Narayan Goenka (b. 1924–d. 2013) was a lay teacher of Theravada Buddhist vipassana meditation and probably the most influential figure in the globalization of vipassana meditation....

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Sakya

Jonathan C. Gold.

in Buddhism

P ublished online March 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 7200 words.

Along with the Nyingma, the Kagyu, and the Geluk, the Sakya (Tib. sa-skya) school is one of the four main Tibetan Buddhist traditions. Sakya is both a religious and political project—an...

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Self, Non-Self, and Personal Identity

Matthew Kapstein.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 5057 words.

The precise nature of the Buddha’s doctrine, as he himself may have taught it, is subject to many difficulties of interpretation. Did the Buddha in fact teach a well-formed “doctrine” at...

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Lotus Sūtra

Taigen Leighton.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 9495 words.

Sections of the Lotus Sutra are among the earliest Indian Mahayana writings. Originally composed in Sanskrit, the sutra seemingly had little lasting effect in Tibet, although a Tibetan...

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Tsongkhapa

Gareth Sparham.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 5119 words.

Tsongkhapa Losang Drakpa (Tsong kha pa Blo bzang grags pa), also known popularly as Je Rinpoche (Rje Rin po che) (“Precious Lord”) (b. 1357–d. 1419), is the founder of Ganden (Dga’ ldan)...

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Buddhism in Japan

Lori Meeks.

in Buddhism

P ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 10823 words.

European missionaries and philologists undertook the earliest Western-language studies of Japanese Buddhism. In North America, the study of Japanese Zen gained popularity during the period...

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Kyōgyōshinshō (Shinran)

David Matsumoto.

in Buddhism

P ublished online July 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 9965 words.

Kyōgyōshinshō is the title customarily used to refer to the principal work of Shinran (b. 1173–d. 1263), a Pure Land Buddhist in Kamakura era Japan. The actual title of the text is Ken Jōdo...

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Kūkai

Klaus Pinte.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 7419 words.

Kūkai (空海, b. 774–d. 835) is most commonly revered as the founder of the Shingon denomination of Esoteric Buddhism in Japan. He is reported to have been initiated into Esoteric Buddhism by...

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Bodhidharma

Jeffrey L. Broughton.

in Buddhism

P ublished online April 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 9280 words.

Countless paintings by East Asian artists have attempted to catch the essence of the enigmatic Buddhist master Bodhidharma, the “founder” of Chan. He is said to be the twenty-eighth...

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Dōgen

Taigen Leighton.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 8736 words.

Eihei Dōgen (b. 1200–d. 1253) was a Japanese monk, ordained in Tendai, who visited China in 1223–1227 and returned to teach in the Caodong/Sōtō tradition. Considered the founder of the...

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Marpa

Andrew Quintman.

in Buddhism

P ublished online April 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 2269 words.

Marpa Chokyi Lodro (Mar pa Chos kyi blo gros, b. c. 1012–d. 1097), a renowned lay Buddhist master and translator of Sanskrit texts, is recognized as the first Tibetan founder of the Kagyü...

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Dalai Lama

Gareth Sparham.

in Buddhism

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 7060 words.

Dalai Lama is the honorific title of Tenzin Gyatso (Bstan ‘dzin rgya mtsho, b. 1935), a Nobel Peace Prize winner and the de facto leader of the Tibetans. The title “Dalai Lama” is made up...

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Nāgārjuna

Paul Donnelly.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 5542 words.

Nāgārjuna is the most influential and revered author and religious figure in many of the the Mahayana Buddhist traditions. Chinese and Tibetan sources credit Nāgārjuna with retrieving the...

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Vasubandhu

Roy Tzohar.

in Buddhism

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 12155 words.

Vasubandhu (typically dated to around the late 4th- to early 5th-century ce), is one of the most influential Buddhist philosophical thinkers, having left an enduring mark both on subsequent...

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Dōgen

Taigen Leighton.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 8736 words.

Eihei Dōgen (b. 1200–d. 1253) was a Japanese monk, ordained in Tendai, who visited China in 1223–1227 and returned to teach in the Caodong/Sōtō tradition. Considered the founder of the...

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Nembutsu

Galen Amstutz.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 8335 words.

The actual presence of the founding teacher was an essential element of Buddhism in its origins, and the desire of followers (in their sense of fallibility and incompleteness) to somehow...

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Soka Gakkai

Andrew Gebert.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 5595 words.

The Soka Gakkai is a movement of Mahayana Buddhist lay believers that originated in Japan in the 1930s. Today, it is the largest and most influential of new religious movements in Japan....

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Classical Japanese Buddhist Philosophy

Masato Ishida.

in Buddhism

P ublished online June 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 6613 words.

The word philosophy, or tetsugaku in modern Japanese, can be perceived as problematic when applied to Japanese Buddhism. There was no explicit term or concept in the Japanese mind...

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Milarepa

Andrew Quintman.

in Buddhism

P ublished online December 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 6718 words.

Milarépa (Mi la ras pa, b. c. 1040–d. 1123) is one of the most famous figures in the history of Tibetan Buddhism. Although considered an early founder of the Kagyu sect that traces its...

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