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founder

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Maritime History.

Of a ship, to sink at sea, generally understood to be by the flooding of its hull either through springing a leak or through striking a rock. Other causes of a ship sinking, such as...

See overview in Oxford Index

Enhanced In Vitro Transcytosis of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Mediated by Vaccine-Induced Antibody Predicts Transmitted/Founder Strain Number After Rectal Challenge

Sandeep Gupta, Poonam Pegu, David J. Venzon, Johannes S. Gach, Zhong-Min Ma, Gary Landucci, Christopher J. Miller, Genoveffa Franchini and Donald N. Forthal.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

January 2015; p ublished online May 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 4853 words.

Background.  The time to acquisition of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection following low-dose repeated rectal challenge correlated...

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Human germinal center B cells differ from naive and memory B cells by their aggregated MHC class II‐rich compartments lacking HLA‐DO

Cécile Chalouni, Jacques Banchereau, Anne B. Vogt, Virginia Pascual and Jean Davoust.

in International Immunology

April 2003; p ublished online April 2003 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Immunology; Biological Sciences. 7237 words.

To generate memory B cells bearing high‐affinity antibodies, naive B cells first encounter antigen in the T cell‐rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. There, they are activated by...

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Germline transcription and recombination of a murine VDJmudeltagamma1 transgene.

K Cunningham, H Ackerly, L Claflin, J Collins, P Wu, C Ford, R Lansford, F Alt and W A Dunnick.

in International Immunology

August 1998; p ublished online August 1998 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Immunology; Biological Sciences. 0 words.

To investigate the regulation of Ig switch recombination, we have constructed mice with a 56 kb VDJmudeltagamma1 transgene. This transgene included an anti-nitrophenyl VDJ segment, Smu,...

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Phenotypic variability in patients with ADA2 deficiency due to identical homozygous R169Q mutations

Joris M. Van Montfrans, Esther A. R. Hartman, Kees P. J. Braun, Eric A. M. Hennekam, Elisabeth A. Hak, Paul J. Nederkoorn, Willeke F. Westendorp, Robbert G. M. Bredius, Wouter J. W. Kollen, Elisabeth H. Schölvinck, G. Elizabeth Legger, Isabelle Meyts, Adrian Liston, Klaske D. Lichtenbelt, Jacques C. Giltay, Gijs Van Haaften, Gaby M. De Vries Simons, Helen Leavis, Cornelis J. G. Sanders, Marc B. Bierings, Stefan Nierkens and Marielle E. Van Gijn.

in Rheumatology

May 2016; p ublished online February 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Immunology; Clinical Genetics. 4218 words.

Objective. To determine the genotype–phenotype association in patients with adenosine deaminase-2 (ADA2) deficiency due to identical homozygous R169Q mutations in CECR1.

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Molecular Mechanisms of HIV Type 1 Prophylaxis Failure Revealed by Single-Genome Sequencing

Hui Li, Lily Blair, Yalu Chen, Gerald Learn, Katja Pfafferott, Mina John, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Beatrice H. Hahn, Simon Mallal, George M. Shaw and Katharine J. Bar.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

November 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 2748 words.

Trials of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) pre- and postexposure prophylaxis show promise. Here, we describe a novel strategy for deciphering mechanisms of prophylaxis failure that...

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HIV-1 Superinfection Resembles Primary Infection

Daniel J. Sheward, Roman Ntale, Nigel J. Garrett, Zenda L. Woodman, Salim S. Abdool Karim and Carolyn Williamson.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

September 2015; p ublished online March 2015 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 2890 words.

The relevance of superinfection as a model to identify correlates of protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on whether the superinfecting transmission resembles...

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Recent Origin of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Variants in Resting CD4+ T Lymphocytes in Untreated and Suboptimally Treated Subjects

Annika C. Karlsson, Annica Lindkvist, Stefan Lindbäck, Hans Gaines and Anders Sönnerborg.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

December 2001; p ublished online December 2001 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 5127 words.

Resting CD4+ T lymphocytes are an important reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in treated patients with undetectable viremia. The knowledge of viral persistence in...

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Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Diversity and Tropism in 145 Patients With Primary HIV-1 Infection

Philip Rieder, Beda Joos, Alexandra U. Scherrer, Herbert Kuster, Dominique Braun, Christina Grube, Barbara Niederöst, Christine Leemann, Sara Gianella, Karin J. Metzner, Jürg Böni, Rainer Weber and Huldrych F. Günthard.

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

December 2011; p ublished online October 2011 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 4808 words.

(See the Editorial Commentary by Loes, on pages 1280–2.)

Background.  In the context of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus...

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Limited Evolution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in the Thymus of a Perinatally Infected Child

Franco Scinicariello, Athena P. Kourtis, Steven Nesheim, Carlos Abramowsky and Francis K. Lee.

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

March 2010; p ublished online March 2010 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 4624 words.

Background . Involvement of the thymus during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may impair production of naive lymphocytes leading to...

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Low Multiplicity of HIV-1 Infection and No Vaccine Enhancement in VAX003 Injection Drug Users

Sarah Sterrett, Gerald H. Learn, Paul T. Edlefsen, Barton F. Haynes, Beatrice H. Hahn, George M. Shaw and Katharine J. Bar.

in Open Forum Infectious Diseases

P ublished online August 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 6099 words.

Background.  We performed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmitted/founder (T/F) virus analysis of the VAX003 vaccine efficacy trial...

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Diversity, Drug Resistance, and the Epidemic of Subtype C HIV‐1 in Africa

David  Katzenstein.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

September 2006; p ublished online September 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 4128 words.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has grown from a handful of sentinel observations in New York and California, nearly 25...

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Postintegration HIV-1 Infection of Cervical Epithelial Cells Mediates Contact-Dependent Productive Infection of T Cells

Amanda M. Micsenyi, Chati Zony, Raymond A. Alvarez, Natasha D. Durham, Benjamin K. Chen and Mary E. Klotman.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

December 2013; p ublished online August 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 5862 words.

The female genital epithelium plays a protective role against invading pathogens; however, sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) still occurs in healthy women....

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Increasing Prevalence of HIV-1 Subtype A in Greece: Estimating Epidemic History and Origin

Dimitrios Paraskevis, Emmanouil Magiorkinis, Gkikas Magiorkinis, Vana Sypsa, Vassilios Paparizos, Marios Lazanas, Panagiotis Gargalianos, Anastasia Antoniadou, Georgios Panos, Georgios Chrysos, Helen Sambatakou, Anastasia Karafoulidou, Athanasios Skoutelis, Theodoros Kordossis, Georgios Koratzanis, Maria Theodoridou, Georgios L. Daikos, Georgios Nikolopoulos, Oliver G. Pybus and Angelos Hatzakis.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

October 2007; p ublished online October 2007 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 5445 words.

Background. In North America and Europe, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection has typically been dominated by subtype B transmission. More...

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Integration of Next–Generation Sequencing, Viral Sequencing, and Host-Response Profiling for the Diagnosis of Acute Infections

Henry Cheng, Fiona Strouts, Timothy E Sweeney, Thomas Briese, Pratheepa Jeganathan, Veda Khadka, Simone Thair, Stephen Popper, Sudeb Dalai, Susanna Tan, Matthew Hitchcock, Ashrit Multani, Natalie Campen, Samuel Yang, Susan P Holmes, W Ian Lipkin, Purvesh Khatri and David A Relman.

in Open Forum Infectious Diseases

P ublished online October 2017 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 0 words.

Abstract

Background

To guide treatment of infectious diseases, clinicians need sensitive, specific, and rapid...

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Detection of Respiratory Pathogens in Parapneumonic Effusions by Hypothesis-free, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

Krow Ampofo, Andrew Pavia, Anne J Blaschke and Robert Schlaberg.

in Open Forum Infectious Diseases

P ublished online October 2017 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 0 words.

Abstract

Background

Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of pleural fluid (PF) from children...

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