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founder

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Maritime History.

Of a ship, to sink at sea, generally understood to be by the flooding of its hull either through springing a leak or through striking a rock. Other causes of a ship sinking, such as...

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The Political Thought of the American Founders

Alan Gibson.

in Political Science

P ublished online March 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics; Political Institutions; Political Methodology; Political Theory. 24144 words.

The historical importance of the American founders as revolutionaries and state builders and the significance of their ideas in constitutional interpretation and contemporary political...

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Clouds on the Horizon

Daniel Byman.

in A High Price

June 2011; p ublished online January 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 2459 words.

This chapter examines Israel's policy toward the Palestines and the West Bank under Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who narrowly won over Shimon Peres in the 1996 elections. It first...

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Hamas Triumphant (2005–2008)

Daniel Byman.

in A High Price

June 2011; p ublished online January 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 9142 words.

This chapter focuses on Hamas's triumphant campaign in its fight with Israel during the years 2005–2008. It begins by looking at Israel's killing of Hamas founder Sheikh Yasin and its...

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The Enemy within (1967–2000)

Daniel Byman.

in A High Price

June 2011; p ublished online January 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 7245 words.

This chapter focuses on the Jewish terrorism that has plagued Israel during the period 1967–2000. It begins with an overview of the Jewish Underground's attack on students at the Islamic...

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Targeted Killings

Daniel Byman.

in A High Price

June 2011; p ublished online January 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 7881 words.

This chapter examines Israel's targeted killing of terrorists. It begins with a discussion of Israel's killing of Saleh Shehada, a founder and leader of Hamas's military wing, in 2002. It...

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Mussolini, Benito (1883–1945)

in The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

January 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 1058 words.

The founder and leader of Italian Fascism and the first successful European fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini served as prime minister

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Atatürk, Kemal (1881–1938)

in The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

January 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 601 words.

Turkish nationalist leader and founder of modern Turkey, Kemal Atatürk (originally Mustafa Kemal) was born in 1881 in the Greek

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Buddhism

in The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

January 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 1182 words.

The term “Buddhism” is derived from the title of the founder of the tradition, the Buddha, meaning “the Enlightened One.”

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Saudi Arabia

in The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

January 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 2170 words.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is governed by a monarchy headed by descendants of the kingdom's founder, Abd al-Aziz ibn

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Weber, Max (1864–1920)

in The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

January 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 828 words.

Although Max Weber is regarded as one of the founders of twentieth-century sociology, his university appointments were all in political

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Between Leadership and Structure Formation: The Challenges of Party Institutionalization

Nicole Bolleyer.

in New Parties in Old Party Systems

October 2013; p ublished online January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 11318 words.

This chapter specifies challenges for new parties’ organizational persistence and electoral sustainability and explains how party institutionalization contributes to both, before and after...

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Innovative financing for infrastructure: Africa50 Fund issues

George Kararach.

in Infrastructure in Africa

February 2017; p ublished online September 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 9516 words.

Increasing the rate of infrastructure delivery in Africa implies a greater focus on project preparation and project development. The specific case of the Africa50 Fund as a financing...

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The Science in Political Science

Kevin A. Clarke and David M. Primo.

in A Model Discipline

January 2012; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 10653 words.

The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, we demonstrate that political scientists believe in and make use of a three-step method: a theory is proposed, a prediction is derived...

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Egypt’s Unfinished Revolution

M. Cherif Bassiouni.

in Civil Resistance in the Arab Spring

January 2016; p ublished online December 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 15719 words.

This chapter outlines an early success and major failure of the Arab Spring. The eighteen-day popular civil resistance movement in Egypt in 2011, initiated by various people, including Wael...

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Paul Gottfried and Paleoconservatism

Seth Bartee.

in Key Thinkers of the Radical Right

March 2019; p ublished online February 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 7001 words.

This chapter discusses the life and work of Paul Gottfried, who is known as the founder of Paleoconservatism, a reformulation of the Right that advocated aspects of the conservatism of...

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Introduction

Nicole Bolleyer.

in New Parties in Old Party Systems

October 2013; p ublished online January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 10184 words.

This chapter introduces the existing research on new parties in advanced democracies and shows the question of which parties are able to exploit their electoral potential and consolidate a...

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The Leadership–Structure Dilemma in Liberal and Leftist New Parties: Short-Term Success but Long-Term Decline through Partial Institutionalization

Nicole Bolleyer.

in New Parties in Old Party Systems

October 2013; p ublished online January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 12445 words.

Most new liberal and new left parties form as entrepreneurial insiders and form the counter-image to the rooted outsider parties dominating the Green and religious group. Being formed by...

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Reserved Seats in Pakistan and India

Mona Lena Krook.

in Quotas for Women in Politics

April 2009; p ublished online May 2009 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 20559 words.

This chapter compares campaigns for reserved seats in Pakistan and India. A shared colonial past included reserved seats for women in politics, as well as for a range of other groups based...

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Diversity and Sexual Equality: The Challenge of Incommensurability

Avigail Eisenberg.

in Reasons of Identity

August 2009; p ublished online February 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 11665 words.

This chapter examines the first sceptical reservation to the public assessment of identity claims, namely that identity claims are incommensurable. The problem of incommensurability rests...

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Honour and Democratic Leadership

John Kane and Haig Patapan.

in The Democratic Leader

March 2012; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 7497 words.

Democracy celebrates its founders, and those who establish democratic offices, but is suspicious of anyone who actively seeks office, deriding them as ‘politicians’. Thus, well-intentioned,...

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