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Union Army

Overview page. Subjects: Military History.

Although the United States had a regular army of 16,000 career soldiers when the Civil War began, throughout the conflict it placed chief reliance on an ad hoc force of ...

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Botha, Louis (1862–1919), prime minister of the Union of South Africa and army officer

Christopher Saunders.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Land Forces and Warfare; African Politics. 3468 words.

Botha, Louis (1862–1919), prime minister of the Union of South Africa and army officer, was born on 27 September 1862 at Honigfontein, near Greytown, Natal, the ninth child of Louis Botha...

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Gathering information, exerting influence

Sabine Dullin.

in Men of Influence

October 2008; p ublished online March 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Politics. 21012 words.

The Soviet Union had a whole apparatus for gathering information and bringing its influence to bear. Three information services worked on Moscow's behalf, each in its own sphere: the...

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Russian revolution, 1991

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

The so‐called second Russian revolution occurred in August 1991 when the coup by hard‐liners wishing to prevent the demise of communist power and the Soviet Union was defeated. The coup...

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Andrei Antonovich Grechko

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. near Rostov, 17 Oct. 1903; d. Moscow, 26 Apr. 1976)

Russian; Minister of Defence 1967–76 Grechko served in the Red cavalry during the Russian Civil War, after which he received...

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Ana Pauker

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Moldavia, 1894; d. Bucharest, c. 8 June 1960)

Romanian; Foreign Minister 1947–52 Pauker was the daughter of a Moldavian rabbi. She joined the Social Democrat Party and took...

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GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 371 words.

The largest and most powerful post–Civil War organization of Union Army and Navy veterans. Founded on 6 April 1866,

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Sharaf Rashidovich Rashidov

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Dzizak, Uzbekistan, 6 Nov. 1917; d. 31 Oct. 1983)

Uzbek; Uzbek First Secretary 1959–83 Rashidov was born into a peasant family and educated at the University of Samarkand. He...

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Petur Stamboliiski

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Slavovitsa near Radomir, 1 March 1879; d. near Slavovitsa, 15 June 1923)

Bulgarian; Prime Minister 1919–23 Stamboliiski was born into a wealthy peasant family, and studied...

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Genrikh Grigoryevich Yagoda

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Lódź in Russian Poland, 1891; d. Moscow, 15 Mar. 1938)

Chairman of the NKVD 1934–6 Yagoda was the son of a Jewish carpenter. After secondary education he became a statistician....

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Petru Groza

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Becia, Transylvania, 1884; d. Bucharest, 7 Jan. 1958)

Romanian; premier 1945–52 Groza was a well-off Transylvanian landowner and industrialist who was regarded as one of...

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Omar Al-Bashir

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Hosh Wad, Banaqa, Sudan, 7 Jan. 1944)

Sudanese; President 1993–  Al-Bashir was born into a peasant family. He rose through the ranks of the Sudanese army, attended military...

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Aleksandr Nikolaevich Shelepin

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Voronezh, 18 Aug. 1918; d. 24 Oct. 1994)

Russian; chairman of the KGB 1958–61, member of the Politburo 1964–75 Shelepin graduated from the Moscow Institute of Philosophy and...

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Luís Carlos Prestes

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 1898; d. Rio de Janeiro, 7 Mar. 1990)

Brazilian; Revolutionary leader and head of ‘Prestes Column’ 1924–7, Secretary-General of the PCB Luís...

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Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoi

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Kursk, 16 Sept. 1947)

Russian; Russian Vice-President June 1991–Oct. 1993 A former air force officer, distinguished in Afghanistan (where as a colonel and deputy-commander of...

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Gerardo Machado y Morales

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Santa Clara, Cuba, 28 Sept. 1871; d. Miami Beach, Florida, 29 Mar. 1939)

Cuban; President 1924–33 The son of a cattle rancher, Machado served as a brigadier-general in the...

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Alexandre Millerand

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Paris, 10 Feb. 1859; d. Versailles, 6 Apr. 1943)

French; Prime Minister 1919–20, President of the Republic 1920–4 Alexandre Millerand was born in Paris and came from a...

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Egon Bahr

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Treffurt, Werra, 18 Mar. 1922)

German; special ambassador 1967–72, Minister for Special Tasks 1972–4, Minister for Economic Co-operation 1974–6 Because he had a Jewish...

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Ramiz Alia

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Shkodra, Albania, 18 Oct. 1925)

Albanian; head of state 1982–92 Alia is the son of poor Muslim parents from the Gheg clan who fled Kosovo after the Balkan Wars. During the...

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Kurt Schumacher

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

(b. Kulm, 13 Oct. 1895; d. Bonn, 20 Aug. 1952)

German; leader of SPD 1946–52 Many Germans felt ill at ease with Schumacher because he seemed to personify the valour and the...

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Darfur

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

Darfur is the westernmost state in Sudan. Despite its long and complex history, it has gained international attention only since 2003 when an insurgency emerged in the region, triggering a...

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