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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

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Southern African Late Farming Communities

Alex Schoeman.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 5535 words.

Southern African Late Farming Communities were related to the majority of contemporary southern Africans. These agropastoralists formed part of a broader precolonial southern African...

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Incorporating Christian Communities in North Africa

Susan T. Stevens.

in The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Archaeology

February 2019; p ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Biblical Archaeology; Archaeology; African Archaeology. 8168 words.

Christian communities in North Africa are attested in textual sources from the second into the tenth centuries. The material evidence for them, especially churches, is restricted to the...

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Early Farming Communities of Southern and South-Central Africa

Peter Mitchell.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 5903 words.

The first millennium AD saw much of south-central and southern Africa transformed by the expansion and consolidation of communities that combined cultivation with herding and smelted and...

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Recent Farming Communities and States in the Congo Basin and its Environs

Pierre de Maret.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 5162 words.

Over 500 different ethno-linguistic groups live today in the Congo Basin and its periphery. Almost all are farmers, and, except in the northeast, all speak Bantu languages. The very centre...

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Pathways to Food Production in The Sahel

Peter Breunig.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 5984 words.

Considered globally, food production is one of the most important turning points in human history. Based on archaeological data, this article argues that the origin of food production in...

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The Archaeology of Clan- and Lineage-Based Societies in Africa

Matthew Davies.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 5717 words.

This article explores some examples of the archaeology of broadly ‘kin-based’ societies and the potential that such archaeology holds for understanding human action through time. It...

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Southern African Hunter-Gatherers of the Last 25,000 Years

Peter Mitchell.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 7010 words.

Southern African hunter-gatherers have long served as archetypes of ‘foragers’. Today, southern African hunter-gatherers are central to discussions of the biological origins of Homo sapiensnull...

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Material Culture, Space, and Identity

Stephanie Wynne-Jones.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 4771 words.

This article explores two themes among the many ways that material culture, space, and identity have been construed in the African past. First, it discusses studies that have taken the...

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Maritime Archaeology in Africa

Colin Breen.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 4720 words.

Maritime archaeology is the integrated study of past maritime communities and peoples and their interaction with the environment and seascapes. This article suggests that Africa’s maritime...

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The Archaeology of Agricultural Intensification in Africa

Daryl Stump.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 5446 words.

Both agricultural intensification and the study of the processes that prompt intensification have a long history in Africa. There are multiple reasons why a community might choose to...

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Complex Societies of the Eritrean/Ethiopian Highlands and Their Neighbours

David W. Phillipson.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 7240 words.

This article examines the period between the early last millennium BC and the mid-second millennium AD in the Horn of Africa, roughly comprising the modern states of Eritrea, Ethiopia,...

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Towns and States of the West African Forest Belt

Akin Ogundiran.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 6036 words.

This article notes that three historical processes shaped the origins, development, and proliferation of towns, as well as the ideas, practices, and institutions of social complexity, in...

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The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters in Eastern Africa

Sarah Croucher.

in The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

July 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 4793 words.

This article examines a dynamic and rapidly growing field in African archaeology. It covers a complex period of colonial history from the end of the fifteenth century, when the Portuguese...

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Southern Africa

Alex Schoeman.

in The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Figurines

April 2017; p ublished online June 2017 .

Article. Subjects: African Archaeology; Prehistoric Archaeology. 9028 words.

Excavations of Southern African farming community sites have yielded two figurine types. The first comprises coarse clay figurines found in clusters in central areas in homesteads. These...

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Prehistoric Figurines in Sudan

Randi Haaland and Gunnar Haaland.

in The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Figurines

April 2017; p ublished online June 2017 .

Article. Subjects: African Archaeology; Prehistoric Archaeology. 8390 words.

The chapter presents a descriptive account of Neolithic site inventories containing figurines in the Sudan Nile Valley. Cattle figurines indicate that animal husbandry played an important...

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Archaeogenetics of Africa and of the African Hunter-Gatherers

Viktor Černý and Luísa Pereira.

in The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers

April 2014; p ublished online July 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; African Archaeology. 10027 words.

East African foragers were probably the first who colonized most of the world before the invention of agriculture—their first biologically successful migration out of Africa can be inferred...

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The Rock Art of Sub-Saharan Africa

Jean-Loïc Le Quellec.

in The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Rock Art

P ublished online March 2018 .

Article. Subjects: African Archaeology; History of Art. 13660 words.

This chapter presents key dimensions of sub-Saharan African rock art (pictograms and petroglyphs). Particular attention is paid to recent approaches, the application of physico-chemical...

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