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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

BaYaka Pygmy multi-modal and mimetic communication traditions

Jerome Lewis.

in The Social Origins of Language

June 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Sociolinguistics; Psycholinguistics. 6578 words.

By examining a set of similarities shared by Pygmy hunter-gatherer groups across Central Africa, this chapter suggests that they represent remnants of an ancient hunter-gatherer culture....

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The Social Origins of Language

Edited by Daniel Dor, Chris Knight and Jerome Lewis.

June 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Book. Subjects: Sociolinguistics; Psycholinguistics. 464 pages.

Whereas Noam Chomsky views language as an internal faculty fitted to the requirements of private thought, this volume views it as designed essentially for communication between two or more...

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The red thread: pigment use and the evolution of collective ritual

Ian Watts.

in The Social Origins of Language

June 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Sociolinguistics; Psycholinguistics. 7940 words.

This chapter proposes two stages to the evolution of collective ritual, as female reproductive costs tracked Middle Pleistocene brain size increase. Preliminary evidence is presented that...

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Fieldwork

Keren Rice.

in Linguistics

P ublished online October 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 12844 words.

When you hear the word “fieldwork,” you probably think of someone going to some remote location to study a language that has not been studied. That is one way of doing fieldwork, but it is...

Language Revitalization

Andrea Wilhelm.

in Linguistics

P ublished online May 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 16423 words.

Language revitalization is a fairly recent subfield of linguistics that is concerned with halting and reversing the extinction of languages. Language extinction has increased rapidly in the...

Gestures

Adam Kendon.

in Linguistics

P ublished online October 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 12999 words.

This article, after listing recent general works and surveys, is organized first to reflect the historical development of interest in gesture up to the middle of the 20th century....

Mesoamerican Languages

Nora C. England and Roberto Zavala Maldonado.

in Linguistics

P ublished online October 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 10866 words.

Mesoamerica as a linguistic area extends from central Mexico south and east through Guatemala and Belize and into western Honduras and El Salvador. Five large language families are found in...

Zapotecan Languages

Rosemary G. Beam de Azcona.

in Linguistics

P ublished online October 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 11405 words.

Known for their numerous suprasegmental contrasts and VSO argument order, Zapotecan languages are indigenous to the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, and are also spoken in diaspora in other parts...

Language Documentation

Peter Austin.

in Linguistics

P ublished online December 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 7387 words.

Language documentation, also known as documentary linguistics, is the subfield of linguistics that deals with creating multipurpose records of languages through audio and video recording of...

Artificial Languages

Arika Okrent.

in Linguistics

P ublished online November 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 6252 words.

Artificial languages are languages that have been consciously devised, usually by a single creator. They are also sometimes called planned languages, constructed languages, or invented...

Francoprovençal

Jonathan Kasstan.

in Linguistics

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 10493 words.

Francoprovençal is the glottonym (language label) assigned by linguists to a severely endangered grouping of Romance varieties spoken traditionally in parts of France, Switzerland, and...

Languages of the World

William R. Leben.

in Linguistics

P ublished online October 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 3301 words.

Scholarly work on the languages of the world is aimed in three main directions: genetic classification, typological classification, and documentation. This article focuses on work...

Machine Translation

François Yvon.

in Linguistics

P ublished online January 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 12644 words.

Machine translation (MT) is an interdisciplinary scientific field that brings together linguists, lexicologists, computer scientists, and translation practitioners in the pursuit of a...

Language Shift

Nicholas Ostler.

in Linguistics

P ublished online May 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 7259 words.

In this article, “language shift” means the process, or the event, in which a population changes from using one language to another. As such, recognition of it depends on being able to see...

Mixed Languages

Peter Bakker.

in Linguistics

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 5832 words.

The identification of a set of contact languages, many of which shared structural and social features that set them apart from other results of language contact, has led to a broad...

Celtic Languages

Sìm Innes.

in Linguistics

P ublished online May 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 11361 words.

Celtic languages constitute one distinct branch of the Indo-European languages. The modern Celtic languages are divided into two subfamilies: the Goidelic (or Gaelic) languages and the...

Idiom and Phraseology

Manfred Sailer.

in Linguistics

P ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 13369 words.

Idiom is used in this article as a general term for syntactically complex, fixed expressions. In the international research community the terms phraseme and phraseologism are gaining more...

Contrastive Analysis in Linguistics

Christian Mair.

in Linguistics

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 9581 words.

In its core sense, contrastive linguistics can be defined as the theoretically grounded, systematic and synchronic comparison of usually two languages, or at most no more than a small...

Children’s Acquisition of Syntactic Knowledge

Rosalind Thornton.

in Linguistics

P ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Anthropological Linguistics; Language Families; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics. 13982 words.

Children the world over pass through stages as they gradually converge on the adult language of their community. Language acquisition researchers are interested not only in documenting...