Oxford Index Search Results

You are looking at 1-20 of 27 items for:

community x Moral Philosophy x History of Western Philosophy x clear all

community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

Idealism, Society, and Community

W. J. Mander.

in Idealist Ethics

February 2016; p ublished online January 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Moral Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy. 7463 words.

Continuing the discussion of idealist arguments that might be given for concerning oneself with the well-being of others, this chapter examines the British Idealist theory of the organic...

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Illuminating Community

Amber D. Carpenter.

in Animals

June 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Western Philosophy; Moral Philosophy. 7996 words.

This chapter presents a discussion of the rich tradition of reflection on animals in ancient Indian philosophy, which deals with but is not restricted to the topic of reincarnation. At the...

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The Free Development of Each

Allen W. Wood.

January 2014; p ublished online April 2014 .

Book. Subjects: History of Western Philosophy; Moral Philosophy. 346 pages.

This book is a collection of essays on right and ethics in classical German philosophy of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Figures discussed are Kant, Herder, Fichte, Hegel,...

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Dignity in Roman and Stoic Thought

Miriam Griffin.

in Dignity

July 2017; p ublished online June 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Western Philosophy; Moral Philosophy. 6415 words.

The concept of dignitas at Rome signified a certain standing or rank in the community. Dignitas was inherently comparative, and one deserved treatment appropriate to one’s standing: that...

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Spinoza, the Body, and the Good Life

Susan James.

in Essays on Spinoza's Ethical Theory

April 2014; p ublished online April 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Western Philosophy; Moral Philosophy. 9746 words.

While Spinoza mostly focuses on the mental aspect of human nature, his parallelism doctrine holds that an individual’s body is one and same thing expressed under different attributes. Our...

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Justice and Retaliation

Stephen Darwall.

in Honor, History, and Relationship

October 2013; p ublished online January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Moral Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy. 8634 words.

Punishment and reparations are sometimes held to express retaliatory emotions. This chapter begins by examining a version of this idea in Mill's views about natural resentment and the sense...

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A Swarm of Virtues

Dorothea Frede.

in Strategies of Argument

March 2014; p ublished online April 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Ancient Philosophy; Moral Philosophy. 10888 words.

This chapter offers a new account of the unity of Aristotle’s theory of virtues—addressing in particular the problem of whether Aristotle’s virtues of character are an integrated whole,...

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Dewey’s Radical Conception of Moral Cognition

Mark Johnson.

in The Oxford Handbook of Dewey

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: History of Western Philosophy; Moral Philosophy. 9419 words.

Dewey’s conception of moral cognition as a natural problem-solving process of imaginative deliberation is . naturalistic insofar as it treats moral agents as embodied social animals...

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Adam Smith

James Otteson.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

January 2013; p ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy. 11136 words.

The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) is Adam Smith's major contribution to ethical thought. Although it underwent six revisions during his lifetime, its primary arguments did not change,...

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Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine

Jeremy Howick, Ashley Graham Kennedy and Alexander Mebius.

in Philosophy

P ublished online January 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 7422 words.

Since its introduction just over two decades ago, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to dominate medical practice, teaching, and policy. There are a growing number of textbooks,...

IV—The Infliction of Subsistence Deprivations as a Perfect Crime

Elizabeth Ashford.

in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society

April 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Epistemology; History of Western Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Philosophy of Mind. 8360 words.

Abstract

Genuine acknowledgement of a fundamental human right entails prohibiting and classifying as a violation behaviour that predictably deprives persons of...

Arthur Schopenhauer

Dale Jacquette.

in Philosophy

P ublished online October 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 8547 words.

Arthur Schopenhauer (b. 1788–d. 1860) was a private scholar and philosopher. Although Schopenhauer was largely ignored by the professional academic philosophical community during his...

Baruch Spinoza

Yitzhak Y. Melamed.

in Philosophy

P ublished online February 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 4915 words.

Benedictus de Spinoza (b. 1632–d. 1677) was one of the greatest metaphysicians of all time, and the boldest and most controversial philosopher of modernity. Born and educated in the Jewish...

Social Aspects of Scientific Knowledge

Helen E. Longino.

in Philosophy

P ublished online October 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6125 words.

Attention to the social dimensions of scientific knowledge is a relatively recent focus of philosophers of science. While some earlier philosophers made contributions to the topic that are...

Rule-Following

Martin Kusch.

in Philosophy

P ublished online May 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 5935 words.

“Rule-following” is best thought of as a title for a number of closely intertwined philosophical questions: What is a rule? Can a rule compel or guide its user, and if so, how? What is it...

Scientific Progress

Ilkka Niiniluoto.

in Philosophy

P ublished online August 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 10588 words.

Science is the systematic pursuit of new knowledge by using critical methods of inquiry. Scientists constitute a community of investigators jointly engaged in research to produce knowledge...

Scientific Progress

Ilkka Niiniluoto.

in Philosophy

P ublished online August 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 10588 words.

Science is the systematic pursuit of new knowledge by using critical methods of inquiry. Scientists constitute a community of investigators jointly engaged in research to produce knowledge...

Contemporary African Philosophy

Thaddeus Metz.

in Philosophy

P ublished online June 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 11134 words.

Given a broad sense of “philosophy” as systematic rational reflection on fundamental issues beyond the sciences, precolonial sub-Saharan societies with oral cultures certainly engaged in...

Instruments in Science

Joseph Pitt and Steven Mischler.

in Philosophy

P ublished online April 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6545 words.

Historians of science and technology are well aware of the crucial role instruments play in their respective domains of study and the social implications of their use. Philosophers of...

Instruments in Science

Joseph Pitt and Steven Mischler.

in Philosophy

P ublished online April 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6545 words.

Historians of science and technology are well aware of the crucial role instruments play in their respective domains of study and the social implications of their use. Philosophers of...