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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

Religious Dedications

Matthew M. McCarty.

in The Oxford Handbook of Roman Sculpture

March 2015; p ublished online March 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture. 6792 words.

The variety of sculptural dedications in sanctuaries across the Roman world defies easy classification and cannot be fitted into the overly broad category of “votive,” but it was instead...

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Egyptian-Style Monuments

Molly Swetnam‐Burland.

in The Oxford Handbook of Roman Sculpture

March 2015; p ublished online March 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture. 6771 words.

Following the annexation of Egypt as a province, Romans living in Italy imported Egyptian antiquities for display in their homes, temples, porticos, and tombs. Artisans working in Rome and...

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Architectural Settings

Brenda Longfellow.

in The Oxford Handbook of Roman Sculpture

March 2015; p ublished online March 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture. 6854 words.

The earliest-known portraits and ideal statues in Republican Rome are associated with sacred locales and fora. By the imperial period, ideal statues and portraits of imperial family members...

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Sparta

Lukas Thommen.

in Classics

P ublished online May 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 16747 words.

Alongside Athens, Sparta is considered as the second mighty polis in the Greek world and has always attracted admiration as well as criticism, so that its image has undergone many...

Callimachus of Cyrene

Dee Clayman.

in Classics

P ublished online December 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 6353 words.

Callimachus of Cyrene was a central figure in the literary and scholarly community that flourished in Alexandria in the 3rd century bce. His poetry was greatly admired by the best Roman...

Greek Federal States

Hans Beck.

in Classics

P ublished online October 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 14826 words.

Ancient Greece witnessed some of the most elaborate experiments with federalism in the pre-modern era. From the late Archaic Age (6th century bce) to the Hellenistic world, the integration...

Greek Federal States

Hans Beck.

in Classics

P ublished online October 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 14826 words.

Ancient Greece witnessed some of the most elaborate experiments with federalism in the pre-modern era. From the late Archaic Age (6th century bce) to the Hellenistic world, the integration...

Philo of Alexandria

Gregory E. Sterling.

in Classics

P ublished online October 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 15273 words.

Philo of Alexandria (c. 20 bce–c. 50 ce) was the most prolific commentator on the Pentateuch in the Second Temple Jewish period (539 bce–70/135 ce). Philo was a member of a prominent Jewish...

Philo of Alexandria

Gregory E. Sterling.

in Classics

P ublished online October 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 15273 words.

Philo of Alexandria (c. 20 bce–c. 50 ce) was the most prolific commentator on the Pentateuch in the Second Temple Jewish period (539 bce–70/135 ce). Philo was a member of a prominent Jewish...

Etruscan Art

Alexandra Carpino.

in Classics

P ublished online April 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 12030 words.

Although Etruscan art has never been accorded the same value or respect given to the material remains of the Greeks or Romans, especially in the English-speaking world, it represents the...

Greek Military

Fernando Echeverría Rey.

in Classics

P ublished online May 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 20950 words.

Warfare may be considered a fundamental activity in Greek civilization: warfare and society interacted in ancient Greece, determining the political, social, and economic institutions of the...

Tertullian

Vincent Hunink and Stéphanie Binder.

in Classics

P ublished online October 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 8755 words.

Tertullian is the first major Latin author of Christianity (and his sparse writings in Greek are lost). He was born in Carthage (c. 160 ce) and died at a relatively high age (c. 220). As...

Polis

Benjamin Gray.

in Classics

P ublished online June 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 15989 words.

The polis (plural poleis), or city-state, was the dominant political unit in the ancient Greek world. It was commonly agreed that a polis is a community of citizens organized under a...

Etruscan Art

Alexandra Carpino.

in Classics

P ublished online April 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 12030 words.

Although Etruscan art has never been accorded the same value or respect given to the material remains of the Greeks or Romans, especially in the English-speaking world, it represents the...

Sport

Zinon Papakonstantinou.

in Classics

P ublished online June 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 12998 words.

Sport was practiced in ancient Greece since at least the Bronze Age; however, athletic activities are not extensively documented before the Archaic period. In the Homeric epics, competition...

Pompeii

Christopher A. Gregg.

in Classics

P ublished online May 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 14866 words.

Founded around the 6th century bce, perhaps by the Italic Ausonian tribe, Pompeii rests on a plateau overlooking both the Sarno River and the Mediterranean, a site ideal for regional trade....

Pompeii

Christopher A. Gregg.

in Classics

P ublished online May 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 14866 words.

Founded around the 6th century bce, perhaps by the Italic Ausonian tribe, Pompeii rests on a plateau overlooking both the Sarno River and the Mediterranean, a site ideal for regional trade....

Late Antique Art

Thelma K. Thomas.

in Classics

P ublished online October 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 16453 words.

There is no consensus as to the shape of the field of Late Antique art or the temporal parameters of the period of Late Antiquity (see the separate Oxford Bibliographies article Roman...

Colonization in the Roman Republic

Saskia T. Roselaar.

in Classics

P ublished online January 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Art and Architecture; Classical History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 12571 words.

During the conquest of Italy and later the provinces, the Roman state acquired a great amount of land. In the Republican period, land was often confiscated from defeated enemies and made...