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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

Pixodarus

Simon Hornblower.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History. 240 words.

Son of *Hecatomnus and youngest brother of *Mausolus, was *satrap (see mausolus) of *Caria341–336 bce, after ousting his sister *Ada; he tried to attach himself by marriage to the...

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Archidamus, 'leader of the damos'

Paul Cartledge.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History. 506 words.

Archidamus, ‘leader of the damos’, was the name of several *Eurypontid kings of Sparta, of whom the most notable were:Archidamus II, who married an aunt and reigned for over 40 years (?469–427 bce),...

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federal states

Jakob Aall Ottesen Larsen and P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History. 1185 words.

Federal states are found in the Greek world from the late 6th cent. bce. The term is used of those organizations in which the separate city states (see polis) of a geographical and ethnic region were...

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Religion, Politics, and Piety

Paul Rahe.

in The Oxford Handbook of Thucydides

May 2017; p ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History. 7885 words.

Thucydides combined religious skepticism with a deep appreciation for the manner in which a devotion to the gods and heroes of the land can sustain the morale of a political community and...

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The End of Enslavement, ‘Greek style’

Kostas Vlassopoulos.

in The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Slaveries

P ublished online March 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Greek and Roman Epigraphy; Ancient Greek History. 10253 words.

This chapter examines the processes through which slaves in ancient Greek communities exited slavery, as well as their status and condition as freed people. It examines the nature of the...

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polis

Oswyn Murray.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online July 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Greek and Roman Law. 1613 words.

Polis (pl. poleis), the Greek city-state. The polis is the characteristic form of Greek urban life; its main features are small size, political *autonomy, social homogeneity, sense of community and...

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Athens, Prehistory

O. T. P. K. Dickinson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online July 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 203 words.

The more substantial remains of later periods have largely effaced prehistoric settlement evidence, apart from subterranean features like tombs and wells. The distribution of these suggests...

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Children as Learners and Producers in Early Greece

Susan Langdon.

in The Oxford Handbook of Childhood and Education in the Classical World

December 2013; p ublished online December 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Ancient Greek History. 9073 words.

The relatively high proportion of children in early Greek communities has important implications for understanding material culture. This essay considers the importance of children as...

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War and Warfare in Ancient Greece

Louis Rawlings.

in The Oxford Handbook of Warfare in the Classical World

January 2013; p ublished online January 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Ancient Greek History. 12452 words.

This chapter reviews some of the main elements of warfare conducted by the Greeks between the eighth and third centuries. The hybristic acts of the enemy have been regarded as sufficient...

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Sparta

Paul Cartledge, Stephen Hodkinson and Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Historical Geography; Ancient Greek History. 2364 words.

Sparta (‘the sown land’?) lies c. 56 km. (35 miles) south of *Tegea, and 48 km. (30 mi.) north of Gytheum, at the heart of the fertile alluvial valley of the Eurotas. See laconia. Very few...

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Ancient Concepts of Personal Identity

Christopher Gill.

in The Oxford Handbook of Hellenic Studies

August 2009; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical Philosophy; Ancient Greek History. 4499 words.

The burgeoning science of human nature recognized the implications for human identity. In the later fifth or early fourth centuries BCE philosophers started to develop a systematically...

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postal service

Nicholas Purcell.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Ancient Roman History. 829 words.

The Greek poleis communicated by professional messengers (hemerodromoi, like *Phidippides, on land; there were also messenger-ships), but developed no other general infrastructure for communications....

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Games and Festivals

Jason König.

in The Oxford Handbook of Hellenic Studies

August 2009; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Ancient Greek History; Religion in the Ancient World. 5721 words.

The festivals of the Greek world demonstrate the power of Hellenism as a unifying ideal, together with the vitality and variety of local Hellenic practice. There is a vast array of...

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Greek Political Theory

Christopher Rowe.

in The Oxford Handbook of Hellenic Studies

August 2009; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Ancient Greek History; Classical Philosophy. 4148 words.

This article considers the theoretical perspective on the polis as the immediate context for an individual's flourishing. That ancient political philosophy has such strong roots in the...

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Kommos

Joseph Shaw and Maria Shaw.

in The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean

January 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Ancient Greek History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 5293 words.

Kommos was lightly settled as early as the Late Neolithic/Early Minoan period, especially on the sloping side of the small southernmost hills known as Tou Spanou Ta Kephalia. Like most...

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Northern Aegean

Stelios Andreou.

in The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean

January 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Greek and Roman Archaeology; Ancient Greek History. 7180 words.

The northern Aegean communities were dynamic partakers of the cultural processes that transformed southeast Europe and the Aegean during the Neolithic period until the end of the fifth...

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Cyprus

Louise Steel.

in The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean

January 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Ancient Greek History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 6658 words.

Cyprus occupies a strategic position between the western Asiatic and European landmasses in the East Mediterranean. The geographical location and physical landscape had a distinct influence...

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nomads

Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Ancient Roman History. 289 words.

Greek (followed by Roman) writers lumped together as nomads (νομάδες, formed on νομός, ‘pasture’) all pastoral groups for whom wandering was a way of life, without distinguishing (as does the modern...

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The Greek Koinon

Emily Mackil.

in The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean

February 2013; p ublished online January 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Ancient Greek History; Classical History; Greek and Roman Law. 9418 words.

This chapter examines the history of the koinon, a form of regional state in ancient Greece comprised of multiple poleis and in some instances other forms of community, and characterized by...

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Greece, prehistory and history

Paul Halstead, O. T. P. K. Dickinson, Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Greek and Roman Archaeology; Ancient Roman History. 5938 words.

The stone age is divided into the palaeolithic (to c.9000 bce), mesolithic (c.9000–7000 bce) and neolithic (7th–4th millennia bce); *metallurgy began during the neolithic, before the conventional...

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