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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

Philosophy of Law

Raymond Wacks.

May 2006; p ublished online September 2013 .

Book. Subjects: Philosophy of Law; Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. 144 pages.

The concept of law shapes the character of our community and underlies issues from racism and abortion to human rights and international war. Philosophy of Law: A Very Short Introduction...

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Natural law

in Philosophy of Law

May 2006; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Law; Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. 4431 words.

Moral questions pervade our lives; they are the stuff of political, and hence legal, debate. ‘Natural law’ asks: Is there an objectively ascertainable measure of right and wrong, good and...

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Natural law

in Philosophy of Law

February 2014; p ublished online February 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Law; Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. 6649 words.

Moral questions pervade our lives; they are the stuff of political, and hence legal, debate. ‘Natural law’ asks: Is there an objectively ascertainable measure of right and wrong, good and...

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Law and Natural Law

Michael Baur.

in The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas

January 2012; p ublished online May 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Law. 9434 words.

Aquinas's account of law as an ordering of reason for the common good of a community depends on the mereology that covered his theory of parthood relations, including the relations of parts...

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Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine

Jeremy Howick, Ashley Graham Kennedy and Alexander Mebius.

in Philosophy

P ublished online January 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 7422 words.

Since its introduction just over two decades ago, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to dominate medical practice, teaching, and policy. There are a growing number of textbooks,...

Arthur Schopenhauer

Dale Jacquette.

in Philosophy

P ublished online October 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 8547 words.

Arthur Schopenhauer (b. 1788–d. 1860) was a private scholar and philosopher. Although Schopenhauer was largely ignored by the professional academic philosophical community during his...

Baruch Spinoza

Yitzhak Y. Melamed.

in Philosophy

P ublished online February 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 4915 words.

Benedictus de Spinoza (b. 1632–d. 1677) was one of the greatest metaphysicians of all time, and the boldest and most controversial philosopher of modernity. Born and educated in the Jewish...

Social Aspects of Scientific Knowledge

Helen E. Longino.

in Philosophy

P ublished online October 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6125 words.

Attention to the social dimensions of scientific knowledge is a relatively recent focus of philosophers of science. While some earlier philosophers made contributions to the topic that are...

Rule-Following

Martin Kusch.

in Philosophy

P ublished online May 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 5935 words.

“Rule-following” is best thought of as a title for a number of closely intertwined philosophical questions: What is a rule? Can a rule compel or guide its user, and if so, how? What is it...

Scientific Progress

Ilkka Niiniluoto.

in Philosophy

P ublished online August 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 10588 words.

Science is the systematic pursuit of new knowledge by using critical methods of inquiry. Scientists constitute a community of investigators jointly engaged in research to produce knowledge...

Scientific Progress

Ilkka Niiniluoto.

in Philosophy

P ublished online August 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 10588 words.

Science is the systematic pursuit of new knowledge by using critical methods of inquiry. Scientists constitute a community of investigators jointly engaged in research to produce knowledge...

Contemporary African Philosophy

Thaddeus Metz.

in Philosophy

P ublished online June 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 11134 words.

Given a broad sense of “philosophy” as systematic rational reflection on fundamental issues beyond the sciences, precolonial sub-Saharan societies with oral cultures certainly engaged in...

Instruments in Science

Joseph Pitt and Steven Mischler.

in Philosophy

P ublished online April 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6545 words.

Historians of science and technology are well aware of the crucial role instruments play in their respective domains of study and the social implications of their use. Philosophers of...

Instruments in Science

Joseph Pitt and Steven Mischler.

in Philosophy

P ublished online April 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6545 words.

Historians of science and technology are well aware of the crucial role instruments play in their respective domains of study and the social implications of their use. Philosophers of...

Philosophical Anarchism

William A. Edmundson and Bas van der Vossen.

in Philosophy

P ublished online July 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 3874 words.

Philosophical anarchism is a branch of political philosophy that is highly skeptical and sometimes even eliminative of the state. At their most ambitious, anarchist theories endorse a...

Philosophy for Children

Philip Cam.

in Philosophy

P ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6497 words.

Philosophy for Children is an educational movement that was originally associated with the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children (IAPC) at Montclair State University...

Analytic/Synthetic Distinction

Gillian Russell.

in Philosophy

P ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 7766 words.

“The analytic/synthetic distinction” refers to a distinction between two kinds of truth. Synthetic truths are true both because of what they mean and because of the way the world is,...

Social Epistemology

Alvin I. Goldman and Thomas Blanchard.

in Philosophy

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 13495 words.

Until recently the orientation of both historical and contemporary epistemology has been heavily individualistic. The emphasis has been on choices among belief, disbelief, and agnosticism...

Epicurus

Tim O'Keefe.

in Philosophy

P ublished online April 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 9213 words.

Epicurus (b. c. 341–d. 271 bce) was one of the most influential philosophers of the Hellenistic period, the two centuries or so following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce....

Epicurus

Tim O'Keefe.

in Philosophy

P ublished online April 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 9213 words.

Epicurus (b. c. 341–d. 271 bce) was one of the most influential philosophers of the Hellenistic period, the two centuries or so following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce....