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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

‘umma

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 268 words.

Arabic word for ‘people’ or ‘community’, which came to be an identifier for the greater Muslim confessional community in the early Islamic period....

Milan, See of

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 287 words.

The early Christian history of *Milan, like that of many Western *cities, is uncertain. A Christian community existed by the ...

Persian Empire, Christians in

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 2166 words.

Christian communities were established in the Arsacid and then the *Sasanian Empire from an early date. Tatian, who compiled the ...

Charour (6th cent.)

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 66 words.

The putative author of a unique *Coptic text lamenting the decline of the Pachomian community.

LSBM

Leslie MacCoull

ed. (with FT) ...

Exilarch

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 258 words.

Lay leader of the Jewish community in Babylonia (Persian *Mesopotamia) from the early *Sasanian period (3rd cent. ...

diocese, ecclesiastical

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 466 words.

Term for the area whose Christian communities are overseen by a single *bishop (so distinct from the *dioecesis...

Sogdian tombs in China

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 166 words.

By the 4th century there were *Sogdian communities along the *trade routes into *China. Tombs dating from the ...

taxation, Islamic

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 808 words.

Islamic taxation was characterized by a distinction between those outside the Muslim community and those inside. Under *Muhammad, *...

sunna

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 377 words.

*Arabic term referring to the instituted tradition of the Muslim community, and mainly associated with the paradigmatic practice of ...

administration, Islamic

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 919 words.

With the establishment of a political community bound by treaty at Yathrib (later *Medina) in 622, *Islam...

dhimma

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 301 words.

The covenant of protection established, in principle, indefinitely between the Muslim ruler and the communities of the revealed religions (the ...

Arday Wiraz Namag

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 222 words.

A *Zoroastrian Middle Persian text describing how, in a time of trouble for the Zoroastrian community gathered at the ...

Theodore of Mopsuestia (350–428)

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 556 words.

*bishop. Born in *Antioch, where he studied with *Libanius, Theodore joined the ascetic community there, headed by ...

Red Monastery

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 263 words.

*Monastery near the city of Sohag in Upper *Egypt, which began as an ascetic community founded by a monastic leader named Pshoi in ...

veterinary medicine

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 492 words.

Farmers and herders learned treatments by experience and from those in their communities. A handful of practitioners could be called specialists (...

monastery

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 1013 words.

Term used by the late 4th century in *Greek, *Latin, and *Coptic for any dwelling place and/or community of monks. ...

Jerusalem, churches of

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 2075 words.

The meeting place of the first Christian community of *Jerusalem was located on Mount Sion; nothing of this survives. Literary accounts of Christian ...

Jews in Georgia

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 166 words.

The presence of substantial Jewish communities in Late Antique *Georgia is widely attested by literary, archaeological, and linguistic sources. Georgian tradition, preserved in ...

Vincent of Lérins (450)

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 164 words.

Gallic *priest associated with the monastic community on the island of *Lérins. He is traditionally identified with the ‘semi-Pelagians’ or ...

bishop

in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Late Antiquity. 1138 words.

A workable distinction between the ministries of bishop, presbyter (*priest), and *deacon is evident by the 2nd century, when each urban Christian community could be supposed to have a...