Oxford Index Search Results

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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

Multiple Stable States and Regime Shifts

James Heffernan, Xiaoli Dong and Anna Braswell.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online March 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 11505 words.

Why do ecological systems (populations, communities, and ecosystems) change suddenly in response to seemingly gradual environmental change, or fail to recover from large disturbances? Why...

Mountain Environments

Ellen Wohl.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online March 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 19096 words.

Mountain ranges occur on every continent, at latitudes from the equator almost to both poles. A region is defined as mountainous if elevation varies by at least 984 feet over a radius of...

Common Pool Resources

Tanya Heikkila and David P. Carter.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online November 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 8513 words.

Common pool resources (CPRs) are characterized as resources for which the exclusion of users is difficult (referred to as excludability), and the use of such a resource by one user...

Wendell Berry

Kyle Dell.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 7653 words.

Wendell Berry (b. 1934) is a visionary, poet, author, and activist, born to a farming family in Henry County, Kentucky. The eldest of four children, Berry grew up in a tobacco-growing...

Wendell Berry

Kyle Dell.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 7653 words.

Wendell Berry (b. 1934) is a visionary, poet, author, and activist, born to a farming family in Henry County, Kentucky. The eldest of four children, Berry grew up in a tobacco-growing...

Resilience

Craig Allen, Ahjond S. Garmestani and David Angeler.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online February 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 7989 words.

Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience...

Rivers

Ellen Wohl.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 8989 words.

River networks, and even individual river segments, are complex ecosystems that can be studied from many perspectives. Arguably the most common differentiation is between studies that focus...

Environmental Security

Christopher A. Scott and Bhuwan Thapa.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online January 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 5836 words.

Environmental security, as a subset of broader concerns over human security, is addressed from the disciplinary perspectives of international relations, political science, geography,...

Frederick Law Olmsted

Kyle Dell.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 7454 words.

Frederick Law Olmsted (b. 1822–d. 1903) is regarded as the father of American landscape architecture for good reason, but to leave that as his sole definition would be to rob him of many of...

Frederick Law Olmsted

Kyle Dell.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 7454 words.

Frederick Law Olmsted (b. 1822–d. 1903) is regarded as the father of American landscape architecture for good reason, but to leave that as his sole definition would be to rob him of many of...

Mangroves

Daniel Friess.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 12626 words.

Intertidal mangrove forests are a wetland ecosystem composed of halophytic tree and shrub species and associated terrestrial and marine fauna. Mangroves are found across a large proportion...

Hydraulic Fracturing

George M. Hornberger, John C. Ayers and Moyosore Ajayi.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 6318 words.

The first modern oil wells were constructed in the middle of the 19th century. Over geological time oil and gas in conventional reservoirs, mainly permeable sandstones and limestones, have...

Natural Fluvial Ecohydraulics

Gregory B. Pasternak.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 21236 words.

Ecohydraulics is the study of the mechanisms that explain hierarchically nested aquatic and riparian biotic phenomena. Mechanisms are sequential actions that can be physical, biological, or...

Soils as an Environmental System

Eldor Paul and Sherri Morris.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online November 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 20026 words.

Soil, the living surface of planet Earth, sustains nearly all life on the terrestrial surface. It is a complex media resulting from parent material, climate, topography, and biota,...

Groundwater

David Stonestrom.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online February 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 12521 words.

Groundwater represents the terrestrial subsurface component of the hydrologic cycle. As such, groundwater is generally in motion, moving from elevated areas of recharge to lower areas of...

Rachel Carson

Lisa Sideris and Amy M. Hay.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online November 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 10039 words.

Nature writer and marine biologist Rachel Carson (b. 1907–d. 1964) shared her passion for the natural world through her written works. She always knew she would be a writer and her...

Nutrient Pollution and Wastewater Treatment Systems

Archis R. Ambulkar.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Pollution and Threats to the Environment (Social Science); Earth Sciences and Geography; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology. 11796 words.

Since the industrial revolution, societies across the globe have observed significant urbanization and population growth. Newer technologies, industries, and manufacturing plants have...

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