Oxford Index Search Results

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community x Criminal Justice x clear all

community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

Community sentences

George Mair.

in Criminal Justice

July 2013; p ublished online June 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Criminal Justice. 9408 words.

This chapter begins with a brief overview of the history of community sentences as alternatives to custody. It then explores the current situation with regard to community sentences and...

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Community Corrections

Beth M. Huebner.

in Criminology

P ublished online December 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 4729 words.

Most offenders under correctional supervision reside in the community. Community corrections includes a broad array of programs including alternatives to incarceration (such as boot camps...

Community Violence

Neil B. Guterman and Muhammad Haj-Yahia.

in Encyclopedia of Social Work

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Criminal Justice; Human Behaviour and the Social Environment; Social Work Macro Practice. 3319 words.

Community violence represents a widespread concern receiving increasing attention by social workers. This article considers the problem of community violence and our present understanding...

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Punishment and rehabilitation in the community

Susan Easton and Christine Piper.

in Sentencing and Punishment

May 2016; p ublished online September 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Criminal Justice. 26496 words.

This chapter reviews the main options available to the sentencing court which do not entail immediate custody. It therefore deals with fines, reviewing the difficulties posed by...

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Community-Based Justice Systems

Kimberly R. Kras.

in Criminology

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 6623 words.

Community-based justice systems reflect the inherent importance of communities as a part of justice system processes as opposed to simply being subjected to it. Much of what we know and...

Probation and Community Penalties

Stan C. Proband.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Corrections; Courts and Procedure. 7715 words.

Probation remains the most common form of correctional supervision. Well over half of sentenced offenders, over four million at any one time in recent years, are under the control of...

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Community Disadvantage and Crime

Robert J. Fornango.

in Criminology

P ublished online March 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 8449 words.

The literature on community disadvantage and crime covers a broad spectrum of topics. At the heart of the issue is the need to understand why crime rates are consistently positively...

Community Change and Crime

John Hipp and Alyssa Whitby Chamberlain.

in Criminology

P ublished online June 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 11378 words.

Community change and crime employs a dynamic perspective, linking ecological changes to changes in crime. More specifically, geographic places are considered entities that can change over...

Supervision in the Community: Probation and Parole

Michelle S. Phelps and Caitlin Curry.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections. 14861 words.

Over the past half-century, the number of adults under criminal justice supervision increased precipitously in some Western countries, with carceral control in the United States reaching an...

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Community and Problem-Oriented Policing

Jack Greene.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 19542 words.

Ideas associated with community and problem-oriented policing came about in the late 1980s and early 1990s partly in reaction to concerns about rises in crime, partly in recognition that...

Impact of Incarceration on Families and Communities

Nancy Rodriguez and Jillian J. Turanovic.

in The Oxford Handbook of Prisons and Imprisonment

P ublished online August 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Prisons and Jails; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 9366 words.

This essay describes the implications of confinement for offenders’ families (both children and spouses) and for their communities, including coercive mobility, weakened social controls,...

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Domestic Violence in the LGBT Community

Betty Jo Barrett.

in Encyclopedia of Social Work

P ublished online March 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Couple and Family Social Work; Criminal Justice; Gender and Sexuality; Human Behaviour and the Social Environment. 16847 words.

Since the mid 1980s, a growing body of theoretical and empirical literature has examined the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)...

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Probation, Intermediate Sanctions, and Community-Based Corrections

Faye S. Taxman.

in The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections

April 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Corrections; Courts and Procedure. 10017 words.

This article serves as a comprehensive review about community-based correctional supervision, which is a subfield of corrections where offenders are supervised and given services outside...

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The Collateral Effects of Imprisonment on Prisoners, Their Families, and Communities

Alec Ewald and Christopher Uggen.

in The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections

April 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Prisons and Jails. 9346 words.

This article studies “invisible punishment” or the “collateral” consequences that follow convictions. It notes that these collateral consequences are sometimes caused by charges or arrests...

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Gender and Community-Based Correctional Programs for Women

Nicole Kaufman.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections; Critical Criminology; Dimensions of Crime. 12472 words.

In the contemporary era of “tough on crime” policies and the globalized drug war, the number of women in the criminal justice system has increased across several countries. Women’s...

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Life on the Outside: Transitioning from Prison to the Community

Thomas P. LeBel and Shadd Maruna.

in The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections

April 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Corrections; Prisons and Jails. 12689 words.

This article focuses on the growing difficult realities of moving from prison to the community. It refers to several narratives of people who have experienced—and struggled—with the...

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Social Consequences of Mass Reentry

Kelle Barrick, Pamela K. Lattimore and Amanda Huffman.

P ublished online December 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Prisons and Jails. 6936 words.

This chapter examines the broader social implications of mass incarceration and reentry. It first considers the characteristics of the communities that are most affected by high rates of...

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Probation and Parole

Jeffrey A. Butts.

in Encyclopedia of Social Work

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Criminal Justice. 1525 words.

Community-based supervision allows the legal system to hold criminal offenders accountable for their behavior without the significant costs and potential harms associated with...

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Intensive Supervision Probation

Geoffrey C. Barnes and Jordan M. Hyatt.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online March 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 8740 words.

Intensive Supervision Probation (ISP) is a form of community supervision that employs smaller caseloads, more frequent contacts, and a variety of other mechanisms to increase the level of...

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The Multiple Faces of Reentry

Susan Turner.

in The Oxford Handbook of Prisons and Imprisonment

P ublished online August 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Prisons and Jails. 9672 words.

In recent years, prisoner reentry programs have been developed to promote the successful reintegration of offenders back into communities upon release from prison and jail. Specifically,...

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