Oxford Index Search Results

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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

Supervision in the Community: Probation and Parole

Michelle S. Phelps and Caitlin Curry.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections. 14861 words.

Over the past half-century, the number of adults under criminal justice supervision increased precipitously in some Western countries, with carceral control in the United States reaching an...

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Probation and Community Penalties

Stan C. Proband.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Corrections; Courts and Procedure. 7715 words.

Probation remains the most common form of correctional supervision. Well over half of sentenced offenders, over four million at any one time in recent years, are under the control of...

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Probation, Intermediate Sanctions, and Community-Based Corrections

Faye S. Taxman.

in The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections

April 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Corrections; Courts and Procedure. 10017 words.

This article serves as a comprehensive review about community-based correctional supervision, which is a subfield of corrections where offenders are supervised and given services outside...

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Life on the Outside: Transitioning from Prison to the Community

Thomas P. LeBel and Shadd Maruna.

in The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections

April 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Corrections; Prisons and Jails. 12689 words.

This article focuses on the growing difficult realities of moving from prison to the community. It refers to several narratives of people who have experienced—and struggled—with the...

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Gender and Community-Based Correctional Programs for Women

Nicole Kaufman.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections; Critical Criminology; Dimensions of Crime. 12472 words.

In the contemporary era of “tough on crime” policies and the globalized drug war, the number of women in the criminal justice system has increased across several countries. Women’s...

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Incarceration Rates in an International Perspective

Marc Mauer.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections. 9332 words.

A nation’s rate of incarceration is the number of people incarcerated as a proportion of its total population. Internationally, there is broad variation in the degree to which nations...

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Mass Incarceration in the United States: From Punishment to Public Health

Ernest Drucker.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online July 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections. 14822 words.

Mass imprisonment in the United States is an epidemic that has spread across five generations affecting millions of individuals, their families, and hundreds of communities. The United...

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Fines and Monetary Sanctions

Alexes Harris and Frank Edwards.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections. 9842 words.

Despite the central role that fines and other fiscal penalties play in systems of criminal justice, they have received relatively little scholarly attention. Court systems impose fines and...

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Risk, Actuarialism, and Punishment

Hazel Kemshall.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online August 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections. 9357 words.

Risk is a pervasive feature of contemporary life, and has become a key feature of penal policy, systems of punishment, and criminal justice services across a number of the Anglophone...

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Probation and Other Noninstitutional Treatment

Peter W. Greenwood and Susan Turner.

in The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice; Corrections. 8249 words.

A delinquency record is one of the strongest predictors of adult criminality. Preventing delinquency helps stop the onset of adult criminal careers and thus reduces the burden of crime on...

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Problem-Solving Courts: An International Comparison

James L. Nolan.

in The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections

April 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Courts and Procedure; Corrections. 11354 words.

This article assesses the success of “therapeutic jurisprudence,” which is placed in the setting of problem-solving courts. Some examples of these problem-solving courts are domestic...

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Correctional Programming and Gender

Gina Fedock and Stephanie S. Covington.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online December 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections; Dimensions of Crime. 11880 words.

As the number of women under correctional supervision continues to increase in the United States, attention to gender within correctional programming is crucial as women offenders present...

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Re-Entry Experiences of Women

Sarah R. Bostrom and Melinda Tasca.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections; Dimensions of Crime. 7320 words.

The re-entry experiences of women are an important area of inquiry given the continued rise in female imprisonment. Since most inmates will be released, reintegration is a chief policy...

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Restorative Justice as Evidence-Based Sentencing

Lawrence W. Sherman and Heather Strang.

in The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections

April 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Theories of Crime; Corrections; Courts and Procedure. 13617 words.

This article takes a look at the conclusions from twenty years of restorative justice (RJ) innovations and their status as of 2011. The discussion is primarily concerned with the...

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