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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

Nationality and Statelessness

Laura van Waas.

in International Law

P ublished online March 2012 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 12258 words.

Nationality is the legal bond between a person and a state. It denotes membership and gives rise to both rights and duties on the part of the individual and the state concerned. This legal...

State of Necessity

Sarah Heathcote.

in International Law

P ublished online January 2014 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 13231 words.

State of necessity, now known as “necessity” and codified by Article 25 of the International Law Commission’s (ILC’s) Articles on State Responsibility (ASR), is a circumstance precluding...

Spanish School of International Law (c. 16th and 17th Centuries)

Pablo Antonio Fernández-Sánchez.

in International Law

P ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 14064 words.

The most important contribution to the development of modern international law was made by the so-called School of Salamanca (16th and 17th centuries). It was not a “school” in the classic...

Arctic Region

Elena Conde Pérez and Marzia Scopelliti.

in International Law

P ublished online July 2013 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 20463 words.

The two polar regions of the planet share some common features; namely, extreme climatic conditions, according to which the physical and effective occupation of the territory is complex....

The Law of Treaties

Antonio Remiro Brotons.

in International Law

P ublished online March 2012 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 19082 words.

The Law of Treaties is a set of international and national rules that governs the life of treaties from their formation to termination, passing through all their effects and disturbances....

General Customary Law

Tony Carty.

in International Law

P ublished online March 2012 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 14962 words.

International society is divided into sovereign states and does not have an international legislature, executive, or judiciary. For this reason there is a virtual consensus of academic...

Unilateral Acts

Francisco Jiménez García.

in International Law

P ublished online July 2014 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 8473 words.

May the representatives of states undertake commitments unilaterally and thus limit their freedom to act? Are unilateral acts as an independent source of international obligations possible...

Palestine (and the Israel Question)

Carmen Pérez González.

in International Law

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 13502 words.

The complexity of Palestinian-Israeli conflict has been sufficiently underlined by politicians and scholars. This is a long-standing dispute, to whose resolution the international community...

International Organizations

Alison Duxbury.

in International Law

P ublished online March 2012 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 14150 words.

Since World War II, both the number and the variety of international organizations operating in the international community has increased. Organizations range from large universal entities...

Terrorism

Ben Saul.

in International Law

P ublished online March 2012 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 8979 words.

International law has struggled to regulate terrorism for over a century, beginning with efforts to cooperate in the extradition and prosecution of suspects, including through unsuccessful...

Human Rights

Jessica Almqvist.

in International Law

P ublished online March 2012 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 20713 words.

The adoption in 1945 of the UN Charter and in 1948 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights marks the initial stages in the development of the current international human rights regime....

Complementarity Principle

Olympia Bekou.

in International Law

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 11258 words.

Complementarity is a fundamental principle upon which the International Criminal Court (ICC) is premised. As such, it has been subjected to much academic scrutiny, both in terms of its...

Cyber Warfare

Marco Benatar.

in International Law

P ublished online March 2014 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 9561 words.

The advent of the Internet, and interconnected computer networks more generally, has impacted society in innumerable ways. Yet this new form of interconnectivity is a double-edged sword,...

European Arrest Warrant

Stefano Manacorda and Costantino Grasso.

in International Law

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 4848 words.

The European Union has increased its influence over criminal law since the Treaty of Maastricht (1993) and, in particular, the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999), came into force. The treaties...

Medieval International Law

Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral.

in International Law

P ublished online June 2014 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 12512 words.

The object of study of medieval international law has traditionally been coincidental with the examination of the particular intellectual and legal-political western European genealogy....

Cultural Rights

Alexandra Xanthaki.

in International Law

P ublished online May 2015 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 6814 words.

Cultural rights are often called the “Cinderella of human rights,” since they have not been explored in depth either by international human rights bodies or in the academic literature....

International Constitutional Law

Thomas Kleinlein and Anne Peters.

in International Law

P ublished online January 2014 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 10773 words.

The notion “international constitutional law” refers to norms of public international law with a constitutional character or function. Thus understood, international constitutional law can...

Idea and Limits of the Continental Shelf

Øystein Jensen.

in International Law

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 8609 words.

The outcome of many years’ development in customary international law and treaty law, the continental shelf is today subject to a special international legal regime. This regime—which...

Islamic Law and Human Rights

Ayesha Shahid.

in International Law

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 7581 words.

One of the contemporary challenges faced by Islamic law today is the issue of compatibility between Islamic law and international human rights law. The debates about the compatibility of...

Natural Law

Craig Reeves.

in International Law

P ublished online March 2012 .

Article. Subjects: International Law; International Courts and Tribunals; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law. 6698 words.

Natural law as a field of jurisprudence is part of a wider tradition of thought whose roots reach back into Greek philosophy. Theories claiming the status of “natural law” theories vary...