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community

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Arts and Humanities.

Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and...

See overview in Oxford Index

Rural Anthropology

Sarah E. Cunningham and Nancy R. Rosenberger.

in Anthropology

P ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 12543 words.

Anthropologists have long examined rural problems and issues. Although much of life today is defined by the urban context, the ability of the urban to define the rural has limits. Rural...

Language Socialization

Kathryn Howard.

in Anthropology

P ublished online November 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 12720 words.

Language socialization research investigates how the processes of linguistic and cultural development are interlinked, and how these processes vary across cultural contexts. This work aims...

Indigenous Archaeology

George P. Nicholas.

in Anthropology

P ublished online July 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 13661 words.

What has become known as “indigenous archaeology” took form in the 1990s through efforts to ensure a place for descendent communities in the discovery, interpretation of, and benefits from...

Mexican Migration to the United States

Luis F.B. Plascencia.

in Anthropology

P ublished online July 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 10970 words.

Since the early 1970s, academic analyses of Mexican migration to the United States have become a sizeable scholarly literature. Scholars from the disciplines of anthropology, economics,...

Max Gluckman

Emanuel Marx.

in Anthropology

P ublished online March 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 5243 words.

Max (Herman) Gluckman (b. 1911–d. 1975) was a South African who became a pathbreaking British social anthropologist. In his studies of South and Central African societies he realized how...

Anthropology and Design

Todd E. Nicewonger.

in Anthropology

P ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 9994 words.

While anthropological studies of design expertise are not new, recent publications, conferences, and online forums have helped coin what is commonly referred to as design anthropology or...

Medical Anthropology

Michele Rivkin-Fish.

in Anthropology

P ublished online November 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 24278 words.

Medical anthropology examines health and illness, disease categories and treatments, the body, biotechnologies, and health-care systems as socially produced phenomena. As is true for...

Anthropology of NGOs

Mark Schuller and David Lewis.

in Anthropology

P ublished online November 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 12101 words.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become increasingly important institutional actors in most societies. NGOs are normally characterized as nonstate organizations independent from...

Dalit Studies

Surinder S. Jodhka and Ujithra Ponniah.

in Anthropology

P ublished online February 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 7768 words.

The term Dalit has come to be used in relation to the cluster of communities located at the lower end of the hierarchy in the Indian caste system. Etymologically, its origin can be located...

Shamanism

Donald Pollock.

in Anthropology

P ublished online October 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 10335 words.

Shamanism has been regarded as one of the world’s oldest religions as well as one of its newest; evidence of shamanic practice has been found in Paleolithic cave art, and shamanic...

Shamanism

Donald Pollock.

in Anthropology

P ublished online October 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 10335 words.

Shamanism has been regarded as one of the world’s oldest religions as well as one of its newest; evidence of shamanic practice has been found in Paleolithic cave art, and shamanic...

Public Archaeology

Jeremy A. Sabloff.

in Anthropology

P ublished online January 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 5301 words.

Public archaeology refers to those aspects of the broad field of archaeology that relate to the public interest. It has a number of key aspects, but perhaps the most significant in the...

Trans Studies in Anthropology

Elijah Adiv Edelman.

in Anthropology

P ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 4513 words.

Trans studies—or research on the experiences, identities, and practices of transgender, transsexual, trans*, or gender nonbinary communities of practice—is a relatively new area of focus...

St. Clair Drake

Aimee Meredith Cox.

in Anthropology

P ublished online January 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 7113 words.

John Gibbs St. Clair Drake’s groundbreaking scholarship continues to be highly influential in the theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches used in research on African Americans,...

Diaspora

Jemima Pierre.

in Anthropology

P ublished online September 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 7674 words.

Diaspora is a term used to describe the mass, often involuntary, dispersal of a population from a center (or homeland) to multiple areas, and the creation of communities and identities...

Missionization

James S. Bielo.

in Anthropology

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 8729 words.

Missionization is a term that references a historical process of religious evangelism. The term most often refers to Christian missionaries, and this usage is reflected in the anthropology...

Louis Leakey

Matthew R. Goodrum.

in Anthropology

P ublished online April 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 13351 words.

Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (b. 1903–d. 1972) became a prominent paleoanthropologist during the mid-20th century primarily as a result of his excavations at Olduvai Gorge and other sites in...

Europe

Damien Stankiewicz.

in Anthropology

P ublished online July 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 10974 words.

To a large degree, sociocultural anthropology was born out of European encounters with unfamiliar peoples whom they sought to understand and explain through the lens of Enlightenment...

Disability and Deaf Studies and Anthropology

Leila Monaghan.

in Anthropology

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 13725 words.

This article presents works on Deaf culture and language and disability topics of interest to anthropologists, particularly sociocultural and linguistic anthropologists. While some of the...

Museum Anthropology

Alaka Wali, Rosa Cabrera and Jennifer Anderson.

in Anthropology

P ublished online January 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Anthropology; Human Evolution; Medical Anthropology; Physical Anthropology; Social and Cultural Anthropology. 7952 words.

The field of museum anthropology predates the institutionalization of anthropology as an academic discipline in universities. The formation of collections from as early as the 17th century...