Oxford Index Search Results

You are looking at 1-20 of 22 items for:

decision-making x Law x Mathematics x clear all

Refine by type

Refine by product

 

The precautionary principle: a new approach to public decision-making?

Katie Steele.

in Law, Probability and Risk

March 2006; p ublished online August 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 7513 words.

The precautionary principle recommends preventing possible harm to human health and environment. It has gained support in the international community as a higher-order legal principle that...

Convergent evolution in law and science: the structure of decision-making under uncertainty

Michael J. Saks and Samantha L. Neufeld.

in Law, Probability and Risk

June 2011; p ublished online June 2011 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

The formal structure of decision-making under uncertainty used in legal trials bears a noteworthy similarity to the structure of decision-making under uncertainty used in hypothesis testing...

Revisiting the p-value: a comparison of statistical evidence in clinical and legal medical decision making

Kelly H. Zou, Lisa M. DeTora, Steven J. Haker and Robert V. Mulkern.

in Law, Probability and Risk

June 2009; p ublished online March 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

While the use of p-values in evidence-based medicine (EBM) is consistent and well-defined, the application of statistical information in health law varies greatly. A comparative literature...

A comment on Saks and Neufeld: ‘Convergent evolution in law and science: the structure of decision making under uncertainty’

Chris Miller.

in Law, Probability and Risk

March 2012; p ublished online February 2012 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

The role played by the required level of statistical significance in the scientific method should not be seen as analogous to that played by the standard of proof in the legal process.

null...

A process approach to inferences of causation: empirical research from vaccine cases in the USA

Vern R. Walker, Chan Hee Park, Philip H. Hwang, Arthur John, Evgeny I. Krasnov and Keith Langlais.

in Law, Probability and Risk

September 2013; p ublished online May 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 9018 words.

In law, inferences of causation are sometimes made through a structured process in which multiple participants play various roles, and make decisions concerning various logical components...

The Split‐up project: induction, context and knowledge discovery in law

John Zeleznikow.

in Law, Probability and Risk

June 2004; p ublished online June 2004 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

Most legal decision support systems have generally operated in domains with well‐understood norms. Hence reasoning has been represented by a combination of rule‐based and case‐based...

Determining error bounds for hypothesis tests in risk assessment: a research agenda

Peter McBurney and Simon Parsons.

in Law, Probability and Risk

July 2002; p ublished online July 2002 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

We argue for renewed attention to the problem of the selection of Type I and Type II error bounds in statistical tests undertaken as part of environmental risk decision‐making. Because of...

Risk analysis and risk management: a European insight

Zoe Nivolianitou.

in Law, Probability and Risk

December 2002; p ublished online December 2002 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

The protection of health and well‐being of humans together with the preservation and sustainability of the environment are principal goals of modern societies. As risk associated with...

Incompetent, prejudiced and lawless? A Gestalt‐psychological perspective on fact finding in law as learning

Burkhard Schafer and Olav K. Wiegand.

in Law, Probability and Risk

June 2004; p ublished online June 2004 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

The paper investigates if different approaches to avoid biased decision making in common law and civilian jurisdictions are attributable to contingent cultural or historical influences, or...

Liberties and constraints of the normative approach to evaluation and decision in forensic science: a discussion towards overcoming some common misconceptions

Alex Biedermann, Franco Taroni and Colin Aitken.

in Law, Probability and Risk

June 2014; p ublished online June 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 5716 words.

At a time when disciplined inference and decision making under uncertainty represent common aims to participants in legal proceedings, the scientific community is remarkably heterogenous in...

Is the civil ‘higher standard of proof ’ a coherent concept?

Ennis McBride.

in Law, Probability and Risk

December 2009; p ublished online May 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

The standard of proof used in criminal cases is that of proof ‘beyond reasonable doubt’, whereas in civil cases it is that of the ‘balance of probabilities’. It is commonly accepted that...

Incommensurability, proportionality, and defeasibility

Bruce Chapman.

in Law, Probability and Risk

September 2013; p ublished online May 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 9987 words.

At least in some cases, the values confronted in legal decision-making appear to be incommensurable. Some legal theorists resist incommensurability because they fear that this presents an...

Visualizing the dynamics around the rule–evidence interface in legal reasoning

Vern R. Walker.

in Law, Probability and Risk

March 2007; p ublished online August 2007 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

This paper presents a visual framework for modelling complex legal reasoning—reasoning that integrates legal rules and policies with expert and non-expert evidence. The framework is based...

Discussion paper: how much of commonsense and legal reasoning is formalizable? A review of conceptual obstacles

James Franklin.

in Law, Probability and Risk

June 2012; p ublished online June 2012 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

Fifty years of effort in artificial intelligence (AI) and the formalization of legal reasoning have produced both successes and failures. Considerable success in organizing and displaying...

Toxic substances in blood: an analysis of current recommendations under a Bayesian (decision) approach

Franco Taroni, Alex Biedermann, Silvia Bozza, Joelle Vuille and Marc Augsburger.

in Law, Probability and Risk

March 2014; p ublished online August 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 9413 words.

This article extends existing discussion in literature on probabilistic inference and decision making with respect to continuous hypotheses that are prevalent in forensic toxicology. As a...

Case comment: an expert's report criticizing plaintiff's failure to account for multiple comparisons is deemed admissible in EEOC v.Autozone

Joseph L. Gastwirth.

in Law, Probability and Risk

March 2008; p ublished online August 2007 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

In its opinions in Daubert, Joiner and Kumho Tire, the U.S. Supreme Court assigned trial judges a ‘gate-keeping’ role in assuring that proposed expert testimony is sufficiently reliable...

Actuarial risk assessment. The loss of recognition of the individual offender

Rasmus H. Wandall.

in Law, Probability and Risk

September 2006; p ublished online February 2007 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

The paper is about the design of sentencing decision-making. It contrasts the actuarial risk assessment instrument (ARAI) in the Commonwealth of Virginia to the statutory and judicial...

Rethinking the role of the image in justice: visual evidence and science in the trial process

David Tait.

in Law, Probability and Risk

March 2007; p ublished online November 2007 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

Visual displays are increasingly important for presenting scientific evidence in the trial process. This paper engages with some of the arguments of Mnookin, Solomon and Feigenson in...

How accurate are the power calculations relied on by the SEC in its regulatory deliberations?

Efstathia Bura and Joseph L. Gastwirth.

in Law, Probability and Risk

September 2009; p ublished online March 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

In two related decisions in Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America v. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the District of Columbia Federal Court of Appeals ruled that the...

Contextual bias and cross-contamination in the forensic sciences: the corrosive implications for investigations, plea bargains, trials and appeals

Gary Edmond, Jason M. Tangen, Rachel A. Searston and Itiel E. Dror.

in Law, Probability and Risk

March 2015; p ublished online October 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Law; Probability and Statistics. 14459 words.

Most forensic science evidence is produced in conditions that do not protect the analyst from contextual information about the case that could sway their decision-making. This article...