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difference principle

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

The principle chosen by rational people from behind the veil of ignorance, in Rawls's A Theory of Justice. The principle requires that social benefits and burdens are allocated in such a...

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Event and De-cision: Towards an Appropriation of Heidegger’s Last God

Tyler Tritten.

in The Contingency of Necessity

November 2017; p ublished online May 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics. 16262 words.

This chapter compares Heidegger, primarily utilizing his notion of the last God in Contributions to Philosophy and his analysis of the contingency of reason The Principle of Reason, with...

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The Evans Argument, Properties, and DDiff

Terence Parsons.

in Indeterminate Identity

September 2000; p ublished online October 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics. 4088 words.

This chapter discusses Gareth Evans's 1978 argument disproving the existence of indeterminate identity. On a simple analysis it appeals to the invalid contrapositive version of Leibniz's...

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When would the laws have been different?

John T. Roberts.

in The Law-Governed Universe

November 2008; p ublished online January 2009 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics. 19022 words.

The principle NP (nomological preservation) says (roughly) that the actual laws of nature would still have been the laws of nature under any counterfactual supposition that does not...

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Numbers

Christopher Peacocke.

in The Primacy of Metaphysics

February 2019; p ublished online July 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics. 14505 words.

This chapter develops a metaphysics-first view of natural numbers and real numbers. The account gives a philosophical priority to applications: to the application of natural numbers as...

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Dispositions

L. Jonathan Cohen.

in The Probable and The Provable

December 1977; p ublished online October 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics. 7758 words.

This chapter first provides some difficulties in current truth-functional analyses of dispositions. The truth-functional analysis of dispositional statements encounters difficulties that...

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Conscious Events and Self-Ascriptions: Comments on Heal and O’Brien

Christopher Peacocke.

in The Self and Self-Knowledge

April 2012; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics. 3727 words.

This paper defend the principle, disputed by Jane Heal, that whenever someone consciously Fs and also has the concept F, then she will be able to judge explicitly, with non-inferential...

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The Arbitrariness Argument

Meghan Sullivan.

in Time Biases

June 2018; p ublished online July 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Mind. 5253 words.

This chapter presents a non‐arbitrariness argument against near bias: (1) At any given time, a prudentially rational agent’s preferences are insensitive to arbitrary differences. (2)...

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Infusing Perception with Imagination

Derek H. Brown.

in Perceptual Imagination and Perceptual Memory

June 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Mind; Metaphysics. 14280 words.

This chapter explores the broad thesis that most if not all perceptual experiences are infused or soaked with imaginings. To begin, the author articulates a sense of imagination useful for...

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From Modal Uniformity

Alexander R. Pruss and Joshua L. Rasmussen.

in Necessary Existence

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Religion. 5915 words.

This chapter gives a ‘modal uniformity’ tool for assessing claims about what is possible. This tool is based upon the general principle that differences in mere finite degree do not...

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Structure in the World

William Jaworski.

in Structure and the Metaphysics of Mind

March 2016; p ublished online April 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Mind; Metaphysics. 9483 words.

The hylomorphic notion of structure is not the same as others that have appeared in the literature. It can be defined in terms of four theoretical roles: structure matters: it operates as...

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Individuals, Properties, and Events

William Jaworski.

in Structure and the Metaphysics of Mind

March 2016; p ublished online April 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Mind; Metaphysics. 5549 words.

This chapter describes and defends a basic substance-attribute ontology. It is committed to the existence of individuals, properties, and states of affairs or events, which are individuals...

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Reason in the Short Treatise

Colin Marshall.

in The Young Spinoza

May 2015; p ublished online April 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics. 5161 words.

This chapter studies Spinoza’s mostly neglected account of reason in the Korte Verhandeling (KV). That account, the chapter argues, has at least four features that distinguish it from that...

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Neutrality, Sunk Costs, and Commitment

Meghan Sullivan.

in Time Biases

June 2018; p ublished online July 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Mind. 7141 words.

This chapter applies the theory of temporal neutrality to past commitments. How do we distinguish irrational sunk cost reasoning from rationally permissible honoring of past plans? The...

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Neutrality and Life Extension

Meghan Sullivan.

in Time Biases

June 2018; p ublished online July 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Mind. 6191 words.

This chapter applies the theory of temporal neutrality to the Lazarus problem: the problem of explaining when (if ever) it is prudentially rational to prefer an afterlife (any period of...

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My Brain Made Me Do It

Christian List and Peter Menzies.

in Making a Difference

June 2017; p ublished online July 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 8247 words.

This chapter offers a critical assessment of the ‘exclusion argument’ against free will, which may be summarized by the slogan: ‘My brain made me do it, therefore I couldn’t have been...

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Representationalism and the Transparency of Experience

Joshua Gert.

in Primitive Colors

July 2017; p ublished online July 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Mind. 12083 words.

This chapter discusses the twin theses of representationalism and the transparency of experience. In place of standard representationalism, the chapter argues for “modest...

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Matter, Form, and Individuation

Jeffrey E. Brower.

in The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas

January 2012; p ublished online May 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics. 8481 words.

The aim of the article is to provide a systematic introduction to Aquinas's primary or basic notions of matter and form. Aquinas considered matter and form as if they were entities...

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Cohen's Critique of Rawls: A Double Counting Objection

Alan Thomas.

in Mind

October 2011; p ublished online March 2012 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Epistemology; Metaphysics; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind. 17943 words.

This paper assesses G. A. Cohen's critique of Rawlsian special incentives. Two arguments are identified and criticized: an argument that the difference principle does not justify incentives...

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Realism and Anti-Realism

Sven Rosenkranz.

in Philosophy

P ublished online March 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 12797 words.

The realism/anti-realism divide has its proper place in metaphysics, but it also has important implications for epistemology and for the philosophy of thought and language. Anti-realism is...

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Identity in Physics

Décio Krause and Jonas R. B. Arenhart.

in Philosophy

P ublished online January 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6116 words.

Traditionally, the problem of identity is closely associated with the problem of individuality: What is it that makes something being what it is? Approaches to the problem may be classified...

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