Oxford Index Search Results

You are looking at 1-17 of 17 items for:

difference principle x Philosophy of Science x Philosophy x clear all

difference principle

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

The principle chosen by rational people from behind the veil of ignorance, in Rawls's A Theory of Justice. The principle requires that social benefits and burdens are allocated in such a...

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Four

Juan Manuel Garrido.

in On Time, Being, and Hunger

May 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 4368 words.

This chapter begins the characterization of the traditional concept of life in Western thought. Both the ancient view (Aristotle) and the modern philosophical conceptualizations of the idea...

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Identity

Nick Huggett.

in Everywhere and Everywhen

January 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 4165 words.

Quantum mechanics, like relativity, is a pillar of contemporary physics, with remarkable, puzzling consequences. In these chapters some very simple ‘games’ – distributing prizes of...

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Quarticles

Nick Huggett.

in Everywhere and Everywhen

January 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 3983 words.

Quantum mechanics, like relativity, is a pillar of contemporary physics, with remarkable, puzzling consequences. In these chapters some very simple ‘games’ – distributing prizes of...

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The Philosophical Novelty of Computer Simulation Methods

Paul Humphreys.

in Philosophical Papers

March 2019; p ublished online May 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 5931 words.

Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set of scientific methods as compared to traditional analytic...

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Physics and History

Steven Weinberg.

in The One Culture?

June 2001; p ublished online March 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 5371 words.

This chapter discusses the uses that historical and scientific knowledge have for each other, but first it wants to take up what may be a more unusual topic: the dangers that history poses...

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Cost-Benefit Paralysis

Stephen M. Gardiner.

in A Perfect Moral Storm

May 2011; p ublished online September 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 20305 words.

This chapter sketches some serious disputes between rival economic analyses of climate change. Such disputes result in vastly different policy recommendations, and involve serious...

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Basic Structures

in Holding On to Reality

April 1999; p ublished online March 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 5912 words.

The most basic structure of all seems to be a division, and it appears to be based on the principle of generation, a distinction when made by the mind, a difference when found in reality. A...

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What Should We Study?

Kevin C. Elliott.

in A Tapestry of Values

February 2017; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 9336 words.

While it is relatively uncontroversial that values have a legitimate role to play in choosing research topics, this chapter argues that there are still important questions about how to...

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The Nature and Provenance of Epistemic Stances

Anjan Chakravartty.

in Scientific Ontology

August 2017; p ublished online July 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 10857 words.

The second of two forms of ontological uncertainty, previously introduced, is explored in detail. This form of uncertainty concerns the contention that not only is ontological commitment...

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Reduction

Andreas Hüttemann and Alan Love.

in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science

September 2016; p ublished online July 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy of Science. 11543 words.

Reduction and reductionism have been central philosophical topics in analytic philosophy of science for more than six decades. Together they encompass a diversity of issues from metaphysics...

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Severe Testing as a Basic Concept in a Neyman–Pearson Philosophy of Induction

Deborah G. Mayo and Aris Spanos.

in The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science

June 2006; p ublished online April 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Philosophy of Science; Science and Mathematics. 14072 words.

Despite the widespread use of key concepts of the Neyman–Pearson (N–P) statistical paradigm—type I and II errors, significance levels, power, confidence levels—they have been the subject of...

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Evidence and Uncertainty in Everett’s Multiverse

Paul Tappenden.

in The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science

March 2011; p ublished online June 2010 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Philosophy of Science; Science and Mathematics. 10524 words.

How does it come about then, that great scientists such as Einstein, Schrödinger and De Broglie are nevertheless dissatisfied with the situation? Of course, all these...

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Three Views of Theoretical Knowledge

William Demopoulos.

in The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science

March 2011; p ublished online December 2010 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Philosophy of Science; Science and Mathematics. 12985 words.

Of the three views of theoretical knowledge which form the focus of this article, the first has its source in the work of Russell, the second in Ramsey, and the third in Carnap. Although...

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My Brain Made Me Do It

Christian List and Peter Menzies.

in Making a Difference

June 2017; p ublished online July 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 8247 words.

This chapter offers a critical assessment of the ‘exclusion argument’ against free will, which may be summarized by the slogan: ‘My brain made me do it, therefore I couldn’t have been...

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Do Healthcare Professionals have Different Views about Healthcare Rationing than College Students? A Mixed Methods Study in Portugal

Micaela Pinho, Ana Pinto Borges and Richard Cookson.

in Public Health Ethics

April 2018; p ublished online May 2017 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Philosophy of Science; Philosophy of Biology; Bioethics and Medical Ethics; Medical Ethics; Public Health. 6781 words.

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to investigate the views of healthcare professionals in Portugal about healthcare rationing, and compare them with the...

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Realism and Anti-Realism

Sven Rosenkranz.

in Philosophy

P ublished online March 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 12797 words.

The realism/anti-realism divide has its proper place in metaphysics, but it also has important implications for epistemology and for the philosophy of thought and language. Anti-realism is...

Identity in Physics

Décio Krause and Jonas R. B. Arenhart.

in Philosophy

P ublished online January 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6116 words.

Traditionally, the problem of identity is closely associated with the problem of individuality: What is it that makes something being what it is? Approaches to the problem may be classified...