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Overview page. Subjects: Business and Management.

1. A payment by a bank under a facility or other agreement.

2. A payment made by an agent, often a professional such as a solicitor, on behalf of a client.


See overview in Oxford Index

Public Finance

Jan‐Erik Lane, David McKay and Kenneth Newton.

in Political Data Handbook

December 1996; p ublished online January 2005 .

Chapter. Subjects: Politics. 11968 words.

This section presents public finance statistics for OECD countries. It features tables on taxes, social security contributions, government final consumption, current disbursements and...

Go to Oxford Scholarship Online »  abstract

Resources for Peace

Philippe Le Billon.

in Wars of Plunder

January 2014; p ublished online December 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations. 12148 words.

This chapter presents several proposals for resource sectors to contribute to peacebuilding. It first discusses proposals relevant to resource exploitation management, focusing on the...

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Spending and Taxes, 1970–2000

in For the Many or the Few

September 2004; p ublished online March 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: US Politics. 9144 words.

This chapter investigates how the initiative affects spending and taxes. To preview the findings, it shows that, over the last three decades, the initiative had three significant effects on...

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The role of mercantilism, humanitarianism, and gaiatsu in Japan's ODA programme in Asia

John P. Tuman and Jonathan R. Strand.

in International Relations of the Asia-Pacific

January 2006; p ublished online January 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: International Relations; East Asian Studies. 8505 words.

Objective. Three competing explanations for the distribution of Japan's ODA in Asia are empirically examined in this paper. The first explanation hypothesizes that Japan reacts...

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Conclusions and Implications

Mark T. Buntaine.

in Giving Aid Effectively

May 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; Environment. 8641 words.

Can the allocation of aid be made compatible with achieving good development and environmental outcomes? To this day, environmental and development aid remains largely stuck in a system...

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Foreign Aid as Foreign Policy Tool

Clair Apodaca.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Public Administration; International Relations. 9212 words.

The majority of countries around the world are engaged in the foreign aid process, as donors, recipients, or, oftentimes, both. States use foreign aid as a means of pursuing foreign policy...

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The political economy of grand corruption in Tanzania

Hazel S. Gray.

in African Affairs

July 2015; p ublished online May 2015 .

Journal Article. Subjects: African History; International Relations; Regional Political Studies; African Studies. 9249 words.

This article examines the political economy of grand corruption in Tanzania in the era of rapid growth and global integration. Grand corruption in Tanzania is linked to intra-elite...

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