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formal operations

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

In the theory of cognitive development of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980), the developmental stage beginning at about 12 years when children become proficient in manipulating...

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formal operations stage

John Scott and Gordon Marshall.

in A Dictionary of Sociology

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sociology. 5 words.

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formal operations stage

Edited by John Scott.

in A Dictionary of Sociology

January 2014; p ublished online May 2015 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sociology. 5 words.

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Informal Norms as a Bridge between Formal Rules and Outcomes of Government Financial Operations: Evidence from State Balanced Budget Requirements

Yilin Hou and Daniel L. Smith.

in Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory

July 2010; p ublished online October 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public Administration. 10676 words.

Both formal rules and informal norms guide government operations; formal rules often function through informal norms. Balanced budget requirements (BBRs) are formal rules, but they are...

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Warsaw Pact

Petra Schleiter.

in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics. 223 words.

The Warsaw Pact, formally the ‘Warsaw Treaty Of Friendship, Co‐operation and Mutual Assistance’ was formed in May 1955. The

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The WTO Dispute Settlement System: The First Ten Years

William J. Davey.

in Journal of International Economic Law

March 2005; p ublished online March 2005 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Financial Law; Public International Law; Economics. 0 words.

This paper reviews the operation of the WTO’s dispute settlement system during its first ten years – from 1995 to 2004. After a brief overview of the system, the experience of several major...

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Improving the United Nations Response to Crises of Internal Displacement

Catherine Phuong.

in International Journal of Refugee Law

October 2001; p ublished online October 2001 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration; Refugee Studies. 0 words.

This article examines the controversial proposal that the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) should be given overall responsibility for internally displaced...

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stand-To

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Military History.

N.

1 the state of readiness for action or attack.

2 the formal start to a day of military operations.

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Facing Up To Refugees — International Apathy and German Self-Help

RYSZARD PIOTROWICZ.

in International Journal of Refugee Law

July 1998; p ublished online July 1998 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration; Refugee Studies. 0 words.

The end of the Cold War has not signalled the end of refugee flows, which are as much an international ‘problem’ as ever before. Some countries are relatively well protected from their...

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Shifting Borders and the Boundaries of Rights: Examining the Safe Third Country Agreement between Canada and the United States

Efrat Arbel.

in International Journal of Refugee Law

March 2013; p ublished online March 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration; Refugee Studies. 11097 words.

This article analyzes the Canadian Federal Court and Federal Court of Appeal decisions assessing the Safe Third Country Agreement between Canada and the United States (STCA). It examines...

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Course Correction

R.V. Vaidyanatha Ayyar.

in The Holy Grail

September 2016; p ublished online September 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Sociology. 7648 words.

This chapter describes the progress made in Independent India’s quest for universal elementary education till 1986 when NPE, 1986, was formulated; it concludes that the much touted ‘neglect...

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Warsaw Pact

in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations

January 2018; p ublished online January 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics; International Relations. 227 words.

The Warsaw Pact, formally the ‘Warsaw Treaty Of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance’ was formed in May 1955. The immediate reason given for its formation was the Paris Agreements...

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Transparency, Auditability, and the Contradictions of CSR

Anna Zalik.

in Corporate Social Responsibility?

September 2015; p ublished online January 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Anthropology. 7257 words.

Today, audit practices associated with flexibilized capitalism aim to imbue social trust into operations physically distanced from the loci of control (arising from the shifting investments...

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‘We Bund and Obleiss Us Never More to Querrell’: Bonds, Private Obliga tions and Public Justice in the Reign of James VI1

Anna Groundwater.

in Kings, Lords and Men in Scotland and Britain, 1300–1625

July 2014; p ublished online September 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Regional and Area Studies. 8289 words.

This chapter explores the process of bonding during the reign of James VI, and the complex set of motivations, including obligations of kinship, allegiance and lordship, which helped to...

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training

Nigar Hashimzade, Gareth Myles and John Black.

in A Dictionary of Economics

January 2017; p ublished online January 2017 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Economics. 106 words.

The process of improving workforce skills. This may be done by formal instructional courses, provided by employers or by educational institutions, either before or during employment. Such...

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Formal and Informal Markets for Water: Institutions, Performance, and Constraints

K. William Easter, Mark W. Rosegrant and Ariel Dinar.

in The World Bank Research Observer

February 1999; p ublished online February 1999 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Development Planning and Policy. 0 words.

Water markets—either formal or informal—can be an efficient method for reallocating scarce water supplies. At the same time certain constraints can raise the transaction costs of trading...

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Co-operation in the Nordic countries before 1914: international networks and the transmission of ideas

Mary Hilson.

in The International Co-operative Alliance and the consumer co-operative movement in northern Europe, c. 1860-1939

June 2018; p ublished online September 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 13502 words.

The chapter introduces the co-operative movement in the Nordic countries (excluding Iceland), summarising the history of co-operation in each country in turn. It asks what were the main...

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Comparative Static Analysis of the Simplest Input‐Output System

Michio Morishima.

in Equilibrium, Stability and Growth

March 1963; p ublished online November 2003 .

Chapter. Subjects: Economic Development and Growth. 10033 words.

This chapter discusses formal similarities between the exchange equilibrium under weak gross substitutability and the static input–output system as represented by various Leontief‐type...

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Dispute Settlement and Enforcement of Rules

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki.

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System

July 2001; p ublished online November 2003 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Economics. 10731 words.

This chapter discusses WTO (World Trade Organization) dispute settlement and enforcement provisions. The mechanism used by the WTO is unique to that institution, and the procedures are...

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Parton, Howe and Postmodernity: A Critical Comment on Mistaken Identity

CAROLE SMITH and SUSAN WHITE.

in The British Journal of Social Work

April 1997; p ublished online April 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Social Work. 0 words.

In their contributions to the debate about social work, modernity and postmodernity Parton(1994) and Howe (1994) argue that the recent changes in social work practice can best be understood...

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The Mechanics of European Political Co-operation

Simon J. Nuttall.

in European Political Co-operation

July 1992; p ublished online October 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: European Union. 7009 words.

This chapter describes how the European Political Co-operation (EPC), the foreign policy arm of the European Community (EC), is organized and what it does today. For the first 17 years of...

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