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founder

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Maritime History.

Of a ship, to sink at sea, generally understood to be by the flooding of its hull either through springing a leak or through striking a rock. Other causes of a ship sinking, such as...

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Philipon, Charles (1800–62)

Edited by Peter France.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 8 words.

(1800–62).

Founder of Le Charivari.

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Berg, Leo (1862–1908)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 73 words.

(Zempelburg, 1862–1908, Charlottenburg),

a journalist in Berlin, was a founder member of Durch in 1886 and a founder of

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Daive, Jean (b. 1941)

Peter France.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 46 words.

(b. 1941).

French poet, founder in 1970 of the journal Fragment. He has published several interrelated

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Lacan, Jacques (1901–81)

Malcolm Bowie.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 930 words.

(1901–81).

Psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, founder of a distinctively French Freudian tradition, and author of Écrits (1966

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Temps, Le (1861–1942)

Michael Palmer.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 121 words.

(1861–1942).

An influential daily newspaper, Le Temps long bore the imprint of its founder, Auguste Nefftzer, a

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Thoby‐Marcelin, Philippe (1904–75)

Michael Dash.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 67 words.

(1904–75).

Haitian poet and novelist, and one of the founders of La Revue indigène (1927–8),

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Sangnier, Marc (1873–1950)

Nicholas Hewitt.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 60 words.

(1873–1950).

Generally recognized as the founder of Christian Democracy in France, Sangnier, from 1902 to 1910, presided

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Savary, Jérôme (b. 1942)

David Whitton.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 69 words.

(b. 1942).

French actor, director, and script‐writer. As founder of the Grand Magic Circus, which

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Senghor, Léopold Sédar (1906–2001)

Sheila Mason.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 758 words.

(1906–2001).

Joint founder with Aimé Césaire, in Paris of the 1930s, of the black cultural movement of

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Voiture, Vincent (1597–1648)

Jonathan Mallinson.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 211 words.

(1597–1648).

Born in Amiens the son of a wine merchant, he became a founder member of the Académie

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Pasteur, Louis (1822–95)

Michael Kelly.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 107 words.

(1822–95).

Founder of microbiology. After his training in chemistry and biology, Pasteur's early work on fermentation led him

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Mnouchkine, Ariane (b. 1934)

David Whitton.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 242 words.

(b. 1934).

French theatre and film director, founder of the Théâtre du Soleil. Although her film Molière, une

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Nougé, Paul (1895–1967)

Roger Cardinal.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 113 words.

(1895–1967).

A founder member of the Belgian Communist Party, Nougé brought an austere and trenchant intellect to the

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Malleville, Claude de (1597–1647)

Edited by Peter France.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 38 words.

(1597–1647).

French poet. A founder‐member of the Académie Française and contributor to the Guirlande de Julie,

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Dujardin, Édouard (1861–1949)

James Kearns.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 215 words.

(1861–1949).

French dramatist, novelist, poet, critic of literature, painting, and music, and founder and co‐editor

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La Chambre, Martin Cureau de (c. 1595–1669)

Edited by Peter France.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 32 words.

(c. 1595–1669).

Physician and founder member of the Académie Française. He wrote scientific works in French, including a

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La Salle, Jean‐Baptiste, abbé de (1651–1719)

Peter France.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 62 words.

(1651–1719).

Founder in 1679 of the Frères des Écoles Chrétiennes, who were providing free primary education in over

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Lavoisier, Antoine‐Laurent de (1743–94)

Peter France.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 74 words.

(1743–94).

One of the founders of modern chemistry. His most important discoveries concern oxygen and the composition of

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Fumet, Stanislas (1896–1983)

Michael Kelly.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 52 words.

(1896–1983).

Writer and critic. Founder and director of the liberal Catholic review Temps présent, he was

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Godin, Gérald (1938–94)

Ian Lockerbie.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 142 words.

(1938–94).

Canadian poet and politician who was one of the founders of the literary journal Parti pris.

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