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online

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

When a computer or a user is directly connected into a network and is capable of interacting with it, for example by querying the contents of a database.

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Words Versus Rules (Storage Versus Online Production/Processing) in Morphology

Vsevolod Kapatsinski.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 8958 words.

Speakers of most languages comprehend and produce a very large number of morphologically complex words. But how? There is a tension between two facts. First, speakers can comprehend and...

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Parsing Strategies

Masaya Yoshida.

in The Oxford Handbook of Ellipsis

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 7133 words.

In order to successfully comprehend sentences involving ellipsis, the online sentence-processing mechanism must be able to identify the ellipsis site, find its antecedent, and recover the...

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Linguistic Forms, Properties, and Efficient Signaling

John A. Hawkins.

in Efficiency and Complexity in Grammars

November 2004; p ublished online January 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 6319 words.

The previous chapter proposed an efficiency-complexity hypothesis and presented three general principles that will give substance to it: Minimize Domains, Minimize Forms, and Maximize...

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Defining the Efficiency Principles and their Predictions

John A. Hawkins.

in Efficiency and Complexity in Grammars

November 2004; p ublished online January 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 12097 words.

The previous chapter introduced the basic logic of the efficiency principles to be proposed — Minimize Domains, Minimize Forms, and Maximize On-line Processing — and gave some informal...

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Relative Clause and Wh-movement Universals

John A. Hawkins.

in Efficiency and Complexity in Grammars

November 2004; p ublished online January 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 21062 words.

This chapter is concerned with relative clauses and wh-movement structures across languages, which is examined from the perspective of Minimize Domains, Minimize Forms, and Maximize On-line...

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Symmetries, Asymmetric Dependencies, and Earliness Effects

John A. Hawkins.

in Efficiency and Complexity in Grammars

November 2004; p ublished online January 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 12899 words.

This chapter continues the discussion of Maximize On-line Processing (MaOP), focusing on the distinction between symmetry and asymmetry in cross-linguistic variation. Symmetry is observed...

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Some current issues in language processing and the performance–grammar relationship

John A. Hawkins.

in Cross-Linguistic Variation and Efficiency

February 2014; p ublished online April 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Linguistics; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 10738 words.

This chapter discusses some issues and disagreements in current psycholinguistics. These include the relationship between working memory load, interference, and predictability in online...

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Three general efficiency principles

John A. Hawkins.

in Cross-Linguistic Variation and Efficiency

February 2014; p ublished online April 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Linguistics; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 13754 words.

This chapter defines three basic efficiency principles that are at the heart of the ‘Performance–Grammar Correspondence Hypothesis’: Minimize Domains, Minimize Forms, and Maximize Online...

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Multiple factors in performance and grammars and their interaction

John A. Hawkins.

in Cross-Linguistic Variation and Efficiency

February 2014; p ublished online April 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Linguistics; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 7432 words.

This chapter focuses on the interaction between principles, both the more general efficiency principles of this book and numerous more specific principles deriving from them, in an attempt...

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Word order patterns: Head ordering and (dis)harmony

John A. Hawkins.

in Cross-Linguistic Variation and Efficiency

February 2014; p ublished online April 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Linguistics; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 10189 words.

This chapter gives a brief summary of some corpus word order data from SVO English and SOV Japanese. The patterns are structured by a preference for minimal distances between heads of...

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Disharmonic Word Orders from a Processing-Efficiency Perspective

John A. Hawkins.

in Theoretical Approaches to Disharmonic Word Order

December 2013; p ublished online January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Linguistics; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 6617 words.

This chapter examines ‘harmonic’ versus ‘disharmonic’ word orders from a typological, grammatical, and processing perspective. It considers how head-initial, head-final and mixed structures...

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Diachronic interpretations of word order parameter cohesion

John Whitman and Yohei Ono.

in Micro-change and Macro-change in Diachronic Syntax

July 2017; p ublished online August 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 7009 words.

This chapter uses statistical tools to investigate the interrelationship between typological features in the World Atlas of Language Structures Online (Dryer and Haspelmath 2013) in the WALSnull...

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Multiple grammars, dominance, and optimization

Joshua Bousquette, Michael T. Putnam, Joseph Salmons, Benjamin Frey and Daniel Nützel.

in Optimality-Theoretic Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics

March 2016; p ublished online May 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Semantics. 6398 words.

This chapter examines parasitic gaps in varieties of German spoken by bilingual heritage speakers in Wisconsin, using Optimality Theory (OT) to model variation. Data from interviews with...

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Evidence for the Use of Verb Telicity in Sentence Comprehension*

Erin O’Bryan, Raffaella Folli, Heidi Harley and Thomas G. Bever.

in Syntax and its Limits

December 2013; p ublished online January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Psycholinguistics. 9571 words.

This chapter presents evidence that verb telicity has immediate effects on the comprehension of structurally ambiguous sentences. It investigates the effect of telicity on the processing of...

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Grammaticalization and explanation

Marianne Mithun.

in The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalization

October 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistics; Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 5507 words.

This article examines the relevance of grammaticalisation for explaining the kinds of structures which occur in languages and why. It focuses on the Navajo language, a language notorious...

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