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online

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

When a computer or a user is directly connected into a network and is capable of interacting with it, for example by querying the contents of a database.

See overview in Oxford Index

Online Fraud

Cassandra Cross.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Policing; Criminology; Forms of Crime. 12777 words.

Each year, millions of individuals worldwide find themselves victims of online fraud. Whether it is responding to a fraudulent email with bank account details or being defrauded through a...

Go to »  abstract

Improving the Police Response to Online Fraud

Cassandra Cross and Dom Blackshaw.

in Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice

June 2015; p ublished online December 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Policing. 5204 words.

Online fraud poses a significant problem to society in terms of its monetary losses and the devastating impact on victims. It also poses significant challenges to law enforcement agencies,...

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Combating Child Exploitation Online: Predictors of Successful ICAC Task Forces

Catherine D. Marcum and George E. Higgins.

in Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice

December 2011; p ublished online September 2011 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Policing. 3297 words.

According to Osuagwu et al. (2010), there are currently 657 million people online. Unfortunately, many of these Internet users are not utilizing this efficient and easy technology in a...

Engagement, Empowerment and Transparency: Publishing Crime Statistics using Online Crime Mapping

Spencer Chainey and Lisa Tompson.

in Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice

September 2012; p ublished online March 2012 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Policing. 6578 words.

Since December 2008, police forces in the UK have published crime statistics using an online crime mapping tool (www.police.uk). The drivers behind this were to help improve the credibility...

The Threat of Exploitation in the Adult Sex Market: A Pilot Study of Online Sex Worker Advertisements

Michael Skidmore, Sarah Garner, Callyane Desroches and Nikhita Saggu.

in Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice

June 2018; p ublished online March 2017 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Policing; Criminology; Forms of Crime. 4095 words.

Abstract

Trafficking and exploitation are central elements of the serious and organized crime threat for local police forces to deal with, but remain largely...

An Assessment of the Training and Resources Dedicated Nationally to Investigation of the Production of Child Pornography

Catherine D. Marcum, George E. Higgins, Melissa L. Ricketts and Tina L. Freiburger.

in Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice

March 2011; p ublished online January 2011 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Policing. 4573 words.

The purpose of this article is to address the gap in the literature investigating law enforcement agencies’ reactions to the growing occurrence of cyber crime, specifically, production of...

Alcohol Abuse, PTSD, and Officer-Committed Domestic Violence

Karen Oehme, Elizabeth A. Donnelly and Annelise Martin.

in Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice

December 2012; p ublished online July 2012 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Policing. 6673 words.

In a unique prevention project in a large US state, researchers explored how alcohol abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates influence rates of self-reported domestic violence...

The Utility of Fusion Centres to Enhance Intelligence-Led Policing: An Exploration of End-Users

Carla Lewandowski, Jeremy G Carter and Walter L Campbell.

in Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice

June 2018; p ublished online February 2017 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Policing; Criminology; Forms of Crime. 8660 words.

Abstract

A developing literature on intelligence-led policing (ILP) and law enforcement fusion centres contends that intelligence and data-driven policing...

Editorial

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

July 2014; p ublished online July 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Public International Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 870 words.

Benjamin Wittes and Gabriella Blum, The Future of Violence: Robots and Germs, Hackers and Drones; Confronting a New Age of Threats

Elad Uzan.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

July 2017; p ublished online August 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 1903 words.

Jus ad bellum and American Targeted Use of Force to Fight Terrorism Around the World

Anders Henriksen.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

July 2014; p ublished online January 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Public International Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 19154 words.

In recent years the USA has conducted hundreds of targeted operations against alleged terrorists in Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia and Libya, and the article analyses if the operations comply...

Reducing the Security Gap through National Courts: Targeted Killings as a Case Study

Sharon Weill.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

April 2016; p ublished online November 2015 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 9356 words.

This article examines the potential role of national courts in reducing the ‘security gap’ in the context of armed conflicts. Judges in democratic States assume different roles. They may...

Enhancing Civilian Protection by Engaging Non-State Armed Groups under International Humanitarian Law

Ben Saul.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

April 2017; p ublished online July 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 11861 words.

Abstract

While most contemporary armed conflicts are non-international, the application of international humanitarian law (IHL) to non-state armed groups...

The Normative Status of Unilateral Ad Hoc Commitments by Non-State Armed Actors in Internal Armed Conflicts: International Legal Personality and Lawmaking Capacity Distinguished

Eva Kassoti.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

April 2017; p ublished online June 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 14233 words.

Abstract

This article examines the normative status of unilateral ad hoc commitments issued by non-State armed groups during internal armed conflicts. The...

Accountability of Non-State Actors in Uganda for War Crimes and Human Rights Violations: Between Amnesty and the International Criminal Court

Manisuli Ssenyonjo.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

January 2005; p ublished online September 2005 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Public International Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 14072 words.

The armed conflict in northern Uganda, between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) rebels and the Ugandan government, is one of Africa’s longest running armed conflicts not...

A Few Rotten Apples’: A Review of Alleged Detainee Abuse by British Personnel in Iraq Following the Al Sweady Inquiry. Is There Still a Case to Answer?

Tim Wood.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

June 2016; p ublished online December 2015 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 12360 words.

Despite two lengthy public inquiries there remains uncertainty and suspicion about the conduct of British personnel towards Iraqi detainees during Op TELIC. The Al Sweady Inquiry rebuked...

Operationalizing Security Council Resolution 1325: The Role of National Action Plans

Amy Barrow.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

June 2016; p ublished online March 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 13003 words.

Since the adoption of Security Council Resolution 1325 (SCR 1325) in October 2000, the international community has seen the emergence of a normative framework on women, peace and security....

‘Echoes of Times Past’: On the Paradoxical Nature of Article 2(4)

Lianne J. M. Boer.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

April 2015; p ublished online June 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Public International Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 11415 words.

The debate on the (in)applicability of Article 2(4) to cyber attacks shows attempts to apply the 1945 prohibition to a 21st-century phenomenon. This article argues that the difficulties...

UN Peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Protection of Civilians

Ray Murphy.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

June 2016; p ublished online February 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 18421 words.

UN peacekeeping has had a long and controversial involvement in the affairs of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The current operation there constitutes one of the UN’s most...

Non-State Actors and Law of Armed Conflict Revisited: Enforcing International Law through Domestic Engagement

Anton O. Petrov.

in Journal of Conflict and Security Law

July 2014; p ublished online February 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Military and Defence Law; Public International Law; Police and Security Services; Terrorism and National Security Law; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality. 18333 words.

Compliance of non-State actors (NSA) constitutes a major problem of the law of armed conflict (LOAC). The reasons lie in the very structure of the law applying in non-international armed...