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standard deviation

Overview page. Subjects: Science and Mathematics.

A measure of the dispersion of data in statistics. For a set of values a 1, a 2, a 3, … an , the mean m is given by (a 1 + anull...

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The Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard in International Investment Law and Practice

Journal Article. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 33801 words.

This article offers the first extensive analysis of the concept of ‘fair and equitable treatment’ in international investment law. The paper discusses the meaning of ‘fair and equitable...

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International Investment Treaties and the Formation, Application and Transformation of Customary International Law Rules

Journal Article. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 20 pages. 10660 words.

International custom is one of the main sources of international law. As a relatively new branch of international law, international investment treaties, emerging in the late 1950s and...

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The Concept of Appeal in International Dispute Settlement

Journal Article. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 22 pages. 13339 words.

The WTO Appellate Body represents an innovation in international law in that an international adjudication authority now operates as a final instance to hear appeals rising from...

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4 The Application of New York Law to Contracts

David W. Rivkin, Mark W. Friedman and William H. Taft.

in International Commercial Arbitration in New York

June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 28 pages. 14230 words.

This chapter provides a brief overview of some basic principles of New York law that are relevant to the interpretation and enforcement of contracts. New York contract law is derived from...

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5 Dubai

Essam Al Tamimi and Robert Karrar-Lewsley.

in Choice of Venue in International Arbitration

January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 29 pages. 15495 words.

The Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC) is an English-language, common law jurisdiction in the heart of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). It has its own civil and commercial laws...

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7 Germany

Richard Happ.

in Choice of Venue in International Arbitration

January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 23 pages. 12888 words.

This chapter evaluates the merits of Germany as a venue for international arbitration proceedings. It discusses the history and development of arbitration in Germany; the processes and...

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Czech Mate: Expropriation and Investor Protection in a Converging World

Journal Article. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 30 pages. 11364 words.

This paper examines the expropriation of a foreign investor by a local partner and the subsequent resolution of the case through international arbitration in favor of the investor. Despite...

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5 Interim Relief

Reinmar Wolff.

in Commercial Arbitration in Germany

March 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 36 pages. 17391 words.

This chapter discusses the interim relief measures issued during arbitration proceedings. Interim measures represent one of the most difficult areas in arbitration as it is characterized by...

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The Good, the Bad or the Ugly? A Critique of the Decision on Jurisdiction and Competence in Tza Yap Shum v. The Republic of Peru

Wei Shen.

Journal Article. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 41 pages. 19094 words.

In stark contrast to the explosive growth of Chinese bilateral investment treaties (BITs), the utility of these BITs has been very limited, which is, as argued, attributable to the...

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1 Brussels

Pascal Hollander and Maarten Draye.

in Choice of Venue in International Arbitration

January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 30 pages. 16394 words.

This chapter evaluates the merits of Brussels as a venue for international arbitration proceedings. It discusses the history and development of arbitration in Belgium; the processes and...

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16 Stockholm

Fredrik Andersson and Kristoffer Löf.

in Choice of Venue in International Arbitration

January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 22 pages. 12645 words.

This chapter evaluates the merits of Stockholm as a venue for international arbitration proceedings. It discusses the history and development of arbitration in Sweden; the processes and...

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6 The Arbitral Award

Reinmar Wolff.

in Commercial Arbitration in Germany

March 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 102 pages. 53125 words.

This concluding chapter examines the arbitral award given at the outcome of the arbitration proceedings. It describes the different ways German arbitration law resolves the dispute — by...

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1 Introduction

Markus S. Rieder and Richard Kreindler.

in Commercial Arbitration in Germany

March 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 28 pages. 12375 words.

This introductory chapter presents a brief overview of the practice of commercial arbitration in Germany against the background of German state court litigation. The term ‘commercial’ here...

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Improving the Mechanisms for Treaty Negotiation and Investment Disputes

Thomas W. Wälde.

Journal Article. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 78 pages. 42221 words.

This article discusses mechanisms and methods for improving investment treaty arbitration and investment arbitration. It first presents the author's view of why investment arbitration...

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The Legal Reasoning of ICSID Tribunals

Journal Article. Subjects: Arbitration; Law. 63 pages. 36995 words.

This empirical analysis of the use of interpretive arguments by ad hoc tribunals of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes covers almost 100 cases decided during...

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Part II Substantive Issues, Ch.8 Standards of Treatment

Todd J Grierson-Weiler and Ian A Laird.

in The Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law

June 2008 .

Chapter. Subjects: Arbitration; Public International Law; International Law; Law. 46 pages. 23071 words.

This chapter argues that as a matter of doctrine, it is becoming increasingly difficult to discern any difference between the ways in which non-discrimination and minimum standard...

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