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standard deviation

Overview page. Subjects: Science and Mathematics.

A measure of the dispersion of data in statistics. For a set of values a 1, a 2, a 3, … an , the mean m is given by (a 1 + anull...

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Effects of fish school structures on acoustic scattering

A. Alvarez and Z. Ye.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

June 1999; p ublished online June 1999 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

The effects of the structure of a fish school on the backscattering signal are reported. A numerical model has been employed to calculate the effective scattering function of the small fish...

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Validation of a three-dimensional biophysical model using nutrient observations in the North Sea

H. Søiland and M. D. Skogen.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

August 2000; p ublished online August 2000 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

A three-dimensional, coupled, physical–chemical–biological model (NORWECOM) is validated by means of observed nutrient fields in the North Sea. The observations used in this study are...

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Potential improvements to current methods of recognizing single targets with a split-beam echo-sounder

Michael Soule, Ian Hampton and Manuel Barange.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

April 1996 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

The precision of in situ target-strength (TS) estimates generated by TS analysers is directly related to the ability of single-target detectors to reject multiple echoes in dense...

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The relationship between ammonia excretion and GDH activity in marine zooplankton

Santiago Hernández-León and Santiago Torres.

in Journal of Plankton Research

May 1997; p ublished online May 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Marine and Estuarine Biology; Zoology and Animal Sciences. 0 words.

The relationship between the ammonia excretion rate and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was studied in marine zooplankton over the course of a bloom and in different size classes...

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Measurements of sound-speed and density contrasts of zooplankton in Antarctic waters

D. Chu and P.H. Wiebe.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 7274 words.

Sound-speed and density contrasts (h and g, respectively), two important acoustic material properties, of live zooplankton were measured off the western Antarctic Peninsula during a...

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Performance of a new phase algorithm for discriminating between single and overlapping echoes in a split-beam echosounder

Michael Soule, Manuel Barange, Haakon Solli and Ian Hampton.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

October 1997; p ublished online October 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

The performance of a new single target detection algorithm (version 5.0) in the Simrad EK500 split-beam echosounder which uses the standard deviation in the sampled phase of received echoes...

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Long-term fluctuations in fish recruit abundance in the western Wadden Sea in relation to variation in the marine environment

Catharina J. M. Philippart, Han J. Lindeboom, Jaap van der Meer, Henk W. van der Veer and Johannes IJ. Witte.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

December 1996 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

Fyke catches from the westernmost tidal inlet of the Wadden Sea were analysed for inter-annual variability in recruit numbers of several commercial and non-commercial fish species between...

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An integrated growth study for North Atlantic albacore (Thunnus alalunga Bonn. 1788)

J. Santiago and H. Arrizabalaga.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 5852 words.

The growth of North Atlantic albacore (Thunnus alalunga) was studied using three methods. Spines collected during a fishing season (n = 761) were read and used to estimate growth...

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Comparing two 38-kHz scientific echosounders

J. Michael Jech, Kenneth G. Foote, Dezhang Chu and Lawrence C. Hufnagle.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 5452 words.

The EK500 has been the state-of-the-art scientific echosounder for surveying marine fish stocks for over a decade; the EK60 is its successor. Ensuring comparability in performance is vital...

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Average seasonal changes in chlorophyll a in Icelandic waters

Kristinn Guðmundsson, Mike R. Heath and Elizabeth D. Clarke.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

December 2009; p ublished online August 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 4171 words.

Guðmundsson, K., Heath, M. R., and Clarke, E. D. 2009. Average seasonal changes in chlorophyll a in Icelandic waters. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 2133–2140.

The...

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Vertical distribution of pre-settled sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea in relation to size and environmental variables

Henrik Jensen, Peter J Wright and Peter Munk.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

January 2003; p ublished online January 2003 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 4563 words.

Vertical distribution patterns of larval and juvenile sandeels were investigated at four locations in the North Sea. Sandeels between 6 and 65 mm were found to depths of 80 m, with vertical...

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A method for estimating the “position accuracy” of acoustic fish tags

John E. Ehrenberg and Tracey W. Steig.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

January 2002; p ublished online January 2002 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

Acoustic tag systems have been used for many years to study the behavior of fish in specific areas of interest. In particular tag systems are being used successfully to study the behavior...

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Time-series analysis of copepod diversity and species richness in the southern Bay of Biscay off Santander, Spain, in relation to environmental conditions

Luis Valdés and Mercedes Moral.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

August 1998; p ublished online August 1998 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

Changes in the copepod species composition and their relative abundances at two stations on a cross-shelf section off Santander (Spain) in the southern Bay of Biscay are described by means...

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Extinction cross-section of Norwegian spring-spawning herring

K. G. Foote.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

October 1999; p ublished online October 1999 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

Acoustic abundance estimation of dense, vertically extended aggregations of fish requires knowledge of the extinction cross-section. An established method based on a comparison of the area...

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Depth dependence of target strength of live kokanee salmon in accordance with Boyle's law

Tohru Mukai and Kohji Iida.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

April 1996 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

The target strength (TS) of fish varies with a number of factors, especially the presence or absence of a swimbladder. This study investigated the effect of the swimbladder on the TS of...

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A re-evaluation of relationships between fish size, acoustic frequency, and target strength

Sam McClatchie, Jon Alsop and Roger F. Coombs.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

October 1996 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

There are many measurements of dorsal aspect target strength of fish, but relatively few studies compare estimation methods or attempt to combine data from different studies into general...

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Consequence of swimbladder model choice and fish orientation to target strength of three New Zealand fish species

Sam McClatchie, Jon Alsop, Zhen Ye and Roger F. Coombs.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

October 1996 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 0 words.

Information on fish orientation has lagged behind the development of models to estimate target strength from fish swimbladders, despite fish tilt angle being an important variable...

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Comparison of shortest sailing distance through random and regular sampling points

Alf Harbitz and Michael Pennington.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

January 2004; p ublished online January 2004 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 5057 words.

The shortest sailing distance through n sampling points is calculated for simple theoretical sampling domains (square and circle) as well as for a rather irregular and concavely shaped real...

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Potential acoustic discrimination within boreal fish assemblages

Stéphane Gauthier and John K. Horne.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

January 2004; p ublished online January 2004 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 5210 words.

Differences in the acoustic characteristics of forage fish species in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea were examined using Kirchhoff ray-mode (KRM) backscatter models. Our goal was to...

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Material properties of Northeast Pacific zooplankton

Kaylyn N. Becker and Joseph D. Warren.

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

November 2014; p ublished online June 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Environmental Science; Marine and Estuarine Biology. 9653 words.

We measured the density and sound speed contrasts relative to seawater of Northeast Pacific zooplankton. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis),...

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