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symmetric relation

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

A binary relation ∼ on a set S is symmetric if, for all a and b in S, whenever ab then ba.

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Overview page. Subjects: Economics.

A feature of certain kinds of derivatives such as forwards, futures, and swaps where the payoff has a linear relation to the underlying. Also called symmetrical since the gains and ...


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Embodied labour and competitive prices: a physical quantities approach

Bruce B. Roberts.

in Cambridge Journal of Economics

July 1997; p ublished online July 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economics; Political Economy; Economic Sociology. 0 words.

This paper presents a reformulated concept of value consistent with Marx's approach. The relation between such values and competitive prices is shown to have novel and symmetric...

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The Role of International Law in Monetary Affairs

Ernst Baltensperger and Thomas Cottier.

in Journal of International Economic Law

September 2010; p ublished online December 2010 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Financial Law; Public International Law; Economics. 11682 words.

Monetary affairs have been a stronghold of national sovereignty, and international law is poorly developed in this field, which has been characterized by informal coordination. This article...

Antinomies of Public and Private at the Foundations of International Investment Law and Arbitration

Alex Mills.

in Journal of International Economic Law

June 2011; p ublished online July 2011 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Financial Law; Public International Law; Economics. 16037 words.

International investment law has in recent years become a topic of great practical and academic importance, as the thousands of international investment treaties have given rise to hundreds...

The Myth of ‘Rebalancing’ Retaliation in WTO Dispute Settlement Practice

Holger Spamann.

in Journal of International Economic Law

March 2006; p ublished online February 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Financial Law; Public International Law; Economics. 27227 words.

It is generally assumed that trade retaliation under the WTO performs some kind of ‘rebalancing’ by allowing the injured Member to suspend ‘concessions and obligations’ vis-à-vis the...

Lending Relationships and Information Rents: Do Banks Exploit Their Information Advantages?

Carola Schenone.

in The Review of Financial Studies

March 2010; p ublished online October 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainy; Banking; Investment Banking; Corporate Governance. 21298 words.

In the process of lending to a firm, a bank acquires proprietary firm-specific information that is unavailable to nonlenders. This asymmetric evolution of information between lenders and...