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virus

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

Program code written to replicate by attaching copies of itself to other objects within the system, and normally also having a detrimental effect. This may range from generation of...

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Viruses

M. Estée Török, Fiona J. Cooke and Ed Moran.

in Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology

December 2016; p ublished online November 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Medical Microbiology and Virology. 38671 words.

This chapter provides an overview of viruses, starting with the basics of virology, before moving on to a systematic overview of each virus, covering important aspects of epidemiology,...

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Persistent viruses

Dorothy H. Crawford.

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Microbiology. 4614 words.

‘Persistent viruses’ explains how some viruses have evolved strategies for overcoming immune mechanisms and survive inside their host for prolonged periods, even for a lifetime. Evasion...

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Tumour viruses

Dorothy H. Crawford.

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Microbiology. 4738 words.

One in three people develop cancer during their lives and 10–20 per cent of human cancers are linked to viruses. ‘Tumour viruses’ shows how viral oncogenes have been instrumental in...

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Respiratory viruses

Dr Mark Harrison.

in Revision Notes for MCEM Part A

March 2011; p ublished online May 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Emergency Medicine; Immunology. 1040 words.

15.1 Rhinovirus, 209

15.2 Influenza, 210

15.3 Parainfluenza, 211

15.4null...

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Foodborne viruses

Marion Koopmans, Carl-Henrik von Bonsdorff, Jan Vinjé, Dario de Medici and Steve Monroe.

in FEMS Microbiology Reviews

June 2002; p ublished online January 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Biotechnology; Genetics and Genomics; Microbiology; Molecular and Cell Biology. 14349 words.

Abstract

Foodborne and waterborne viral infections are increasingly recognized as causes of illness in humans. This increase is partly explained by changes...

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Hepatitis viruses (excluding hepatitis C virus)

N.V. Naoumov.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 4915 words.

The group of hepatitis viruses includes five unrelated human viruses (A to E), which differ in their genome organization, biology, and epidemiology, while being united by their...

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Epstein–Barr virus

M.A. Epstein and A.B. Rickinson.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 5566 words.

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus with a linear double-stranded DNA genome that is carried asymptomatically by most people. Symptomless primary infection is usual in...

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What are viruses?

Dorothy H. Crawford.

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Microbiology. 3411 words.

‘What are viruses?’ introduces viruses and their structure. Martinus Beijerinck, in 1898, was the first to coin the term ‘virus’, and invention of the electron microscope in the late 1930s...

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Emerging virus infections

Dorothy H. Crawford.

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Microbiology. 4613 words.

The term ‘emerging virus infection’ refers to both the emergence of an infectious disease caused by a virus that is new to the species it infects, and to a re-emerging infection, meaning...

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Viruses and cancer

R.A. Weiss.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 1673 words.

Viruses are important in cancer for three main reasons: (1) As a cause of cancer—about 15% of the worldwide cancer burden is due to viruses: retroviruses can activate cellular...

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Emerging virus infections

Dorothy H. Crawford.

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Microbiology. 2873 words.

Arboviruses are generally transmitted by small biting insects such as mosquitoes. These insects are not just passive carriers of the viruses, but are required by the viruses to complete...

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Respiratory tract viruses

Malik Peiris.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 8915 words.

Viral respiratory infections, including rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses, and influenza viruses, are a...

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Viruses are everywhere

Dorothy H. Crawford.

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Microbiology. 1846 words.

‘Viruses are everywhere’ describes the ‘virosphere’—the huge virus biomass of enormous variety and complexity in the environment. Viruses are the most numerous microbes on Earth with an...

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Newly discovered viruses

H.C. Hughes.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 3764 words.

Although humans are affected by an enormous range of microorganisms, almost all newly discovered emerging pathogens are viruses that are often zoonotic or vector-borne. These emerging...

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Influenza B Virus Encephalitis

Jonathan A. McCullers, Sergio Facchini, P. Joan Chesney and Robert G. Webster.

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

April 1999; p ublished online April 1999 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 0 words.

Acute encephalitis and postinfectious encephalopathy have been reported infrequently in association with influenza A and B virus infections. We report herein a case of a 6-year-old girl...

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Viruses, cancer and aids

Robin A. Weiss.

in FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology

December 1999; p ublished online January 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Biotechnology; Genetics and Genomics; Microbiology; Molecular and Cell Biology. 2952 words.

Abstract

Patients with AIDS are at risk of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. These tumours are associated with the gamma herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)...

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Dual Respiratory Virus Infections

Ashley L. Drews, Robert L. Atmar, W. Paul Glezen, Barbara D. Baxter, Pedro A. Piedra and Stephen B. Greenberg.

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

December 1997; p ublished online December 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 0 words.

We retrospectively reviewed eight prospective epidemiological studies conducted between 1991 and 1995 for dual respiratory virus infection (DRVI) to determine the frequency, associated...

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Ecology of prokaryotic viruses

Markus G. Weinbauer.

in FEMS Microbiology Reviews

May 2004; p ublished online January 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Biotechnology; Genetics and Genomics; Microbiology; Molecular and Cell Biology. 43034 words.

Abstract

The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is...

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Viruses past, present, and future

Dorothy H. Crawford.

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Microbiology. 2041 words.

‘Viruses past, present, and future’ looks at the changing pattern of virus infections through the ages and speculates about how humans and viruses might interact in the future. Viruses,...

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Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

Dorothy H. Crawford.

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Book. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Microbiology. 176 pages.

Viruses: A Very Short Introduction outlines the origins, structure, and method of infection of a vast variety of viruses and demonstrates how clever these entities appear to...

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