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virus

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

Program code written to replicate by attaching copies of itself to other objects within the system, and normally also having a detrimental effect. This may range from generation of...

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Viruses reverse the genetic flow

Robin A. Weiss.

in A Century of Nature

December 2003; p ublished online May 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 7176 words.

In 1970 it emerged that certain viruses that have their genes in the form of RNA can copy the RNA “backward” into DNA in infected cells. This discovery has had an immense impact. It became...

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A Loathsome Virus

in The Vaccination Controversy

December 2007; p ublished online June 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 3559 words.

After a slow beginning, opposition to compulsion had gathered momentum by 1875, coming into prominence first in the north of England, chiefly in Manchester and Leeds. This chapter focuses...

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virology

William C. Summers.

in The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

January 2003; p ublished online January 2003 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 1074 words.

The term “virus” in its original Latin meaning (poison, morbid principle) was used up until the beginning of the twentieth

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Journey to the T cell

Jonathan C. Howard.

in A Century of Nature

December 2003; p ublished online May 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 4338 words.

Immunization against viral infection has saved countless lives, but how it works long remained a mystery. The discovery of antibodies at the end of the nineteenth century revealed one...

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Jonas Salk

Charlotte Decroes Jacobs.

in Dreamers, Visionaries, and Revolutionaries in the Life Sciences

July 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 4973 words.

This chapter presents the life and work of Jonas Salk, starting with his co-development of the first influenza vaccine, but focusing on the polio vaccine. This physician-scientist made and...

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Paradigms and Exemplars Meet Biomedicine

Angela N. H. Creager.

in Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions at Fifty

March 2016; p ublished online September 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 6318 words.

This essay argues that model systems in biology function as exemplars in the sense Thomas Kuhn develops in his postscript to second edition of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions,...

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Alcohol, Heroin and AIDS

in The Turnstone

February 2001; p ublished online June 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 2715 words.

This chapter details the Medico-Social Research Board's studies on substance abuse by young people in Ireland. In 1982/83, the board found that 10 per cent of those aged 15–24 in the area...

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Paleopathology in Italy

Gino Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra and Simona Minozzi.

in The Global History of Paleopathology

June 2012; p ublished online March 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 6889 words.

This chapter discusses the history of paleopathology in Italy. It covers the Turin school of paleopathology; the Pisa school of anthropology, including paleoanthropology; and research by...

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Prolegomena

Jonathan Lamb.

in Scurvy

November 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 11426 words.

This chapter presents a background on scurvy. Scurvy's first attested appearance in literature is found in Luis Vaz de Camoens's The Lusiads (1572), a poem celebrating Vasco da Gama's...

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The Influence of Variation among Replicates on Repeatability

Jacob Pitcovski, Ehud Shahar and Avigdor Cahaner.

in Stepping in the Same River Twice

April 2017; p ublished online September 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 4604 words.

This chapter first illustrates how a large number of observations can inform the design of a particular experiment intended to test rigorously the causes of the observed associations. It...

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Retirement and a Shotgun Marriage

in The Turnstone

February 2001; p ublished online June 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 2179 words.

This chapter first details the author's research on the factors behind the large number of cancer-related deaths among men in the research and technical staff of the Agricultural Institute...

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Pandemic flus and vaccination policies in Sweden

Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg.

in The Politics of Vaccination

April 2017; p ublished online September 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology. 9971 words.

During 2010 an increasing incidence of narcolepsy in children and adolescents was reported in Sweden and Finland, associated with the pandemic vaccine Pandemrix. Vaccination has since the...

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The Great Influenza

Samuel K. Cohn, Jr..

in Epidemics

April 2018; p ublished online May 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Social and Cultural History. 10380 words.

This chapter examines evidence principally from the US that the Great Influenza provoked profiteering by landlords, undertakers, vendors of fruit, pharmacists, and doctors, but shows that...

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Yellow Fever in the Caribbean

Mariola Espinosa.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History

Article. Subjects: Caribbean History; History of Science and Technology. 147 words.

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Please check back later for the full article.

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Life scientists’ views and perspectives on the regulation of dual-use research of concern

Sabrina Engel-Glatter and Marcello Ienca.

in Science and Public Policy

February 2018; p ublished online September 2017 .

Journal Article. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Innovation; Technological Change; Research and Development; Public Policy. 10468 words.

Abstract

In the early 2000s, several publications initiated a debate about the potential misuse of academic life science research. The debate was refueled in...

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