Oxford Index Search Results

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virus

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

Program code written to replicate by attaching copies of itself to other objects within the system, and normally also having a detrimental effect. This may range from generation of...

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Viruses

Simon M. Fox, Angela M. Minassian, Thomas Rawlinson and Brian J. Angus.

in OSH Infection in the Immunocompromised Host

November 2018; p ublished online October 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Infectious Diseases. 12817 words.

Viral infections are particularly important in the immunocompromised and are a leading cause of death in solid organ transplantation and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. They...

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Viruses

M. Estée Török, Fiona J. Cooke and Ed Moran.

in Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology

December 2016; p ublished online November 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Medical Microbiology and Virology. 38671 words.

This chapter provides an overview of viruses, starting with the basics of virology, before moving on to a systematic overview of each virus, covering important aspects of epidemiology,...

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Rubella Virus

Emmaculate Lebo and Susan Reef.

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

December 2017; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Infectious Diseases. 4898 words.

Rubella infection in pregnant women, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriages, fetal deaths, stillbirths, or a constellation of congenital anomalies known as...

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Zika Virus

Jennifer S. Read.

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

December 2017; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Infectious Diseases. 6209 words.

Although generally asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in the general population, infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy may lead to severely adverse fetal and infant...

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Hepatitis viruses (excluding hepatitis C virus)

N.V. Naoumov.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 4915 words.

The group of hepatitis viruses includes five unrelated human viruses (A to E), which differ in their genome organization, biology, and epidemiology, while being united by their...

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Select Viruses in Adults

Randall C. Walker.

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

January 2012; p ublished online June 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Infectious Diseases. 8984 words.

The following types of viral infections are discussed in this chapter: viral infections that have the capacity for multiorgan or systemic disease; infections that affect adults who may be...

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Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus

Daniel J. Bonthius.

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

December 2017; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Infectious Diseases. 5259 words.

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), an arenavirus, is a prevalent pathogen and an important and underrecognized cause of neurologic birth defects. LCMV utilizes rodents as its...

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Epstein–Barr virus

M.A. Epstein and A.B. Rickinson.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 5566 words.

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus with a linear double-stranded DNA genome that is carried asymptomatically by most people. Symptomless primary infection is usual in...

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Respiratory syncytial virus

Edited by Mike Sharland.

in Manual of Childhood Infections

April 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Paediatrics; Infectious Diseases. 1860 words.

Respiratory syncytial virus remains a global leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children. Treatment remains largely supportive. Recent developments in...

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Zelalem Temesgen.

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

January 2012; p ublished online June 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Infectious Diseases. 10497 words.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus, a member of the Retroviridae family (retroviruses). There are 2 genetically distinct types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2

HIV-1 is...

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Viruses and cancer

R.A. Weiss.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 1673 words.

Viruses are important in cancer for three main reasons: (1) As a cause of cancer—about 15% of the worldwide cancer burden is due to viruses: retroviruses can activate cellular...

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Respiratory tract viruses

Malik Peiris.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 8915 words.

Viral respiratory infections, including rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses, and influenza viruses, are a...

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Hepatitis E Virus

Lisa J. Krain and Kenrad E. Nelson.

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

December 2017; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Infectious Diseases. 5703 words.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) poses serious risks to pregnant women and their developing fetuses, including increased risk of pregnancy loss, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and early infant death....

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West Nile Virus

Matthew Finn.

in Infectious Diseases Emergencies

September 2016; p ublished online November 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Emergency Medicine. 2076 words.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flavivirus family that is transmitted via a mosquito vector, typically causing fever and capable of causing meningoencephalitis....

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Epstein–Barr virus

Edited by Mike Sharland.

in Manual of Childhood Infections

April 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Paediatrics; Infectious Diseases. 1561 words.

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the commonest cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The virus infects B lymphocytes but is also capable of infecting squamous epithelial cells, smooth muscle...

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Hepatitis B Virus

Athena P. Kourtis, Shruti Chandramouli, Gonzague Jourdain and Marc Bulterys.

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

December 2017; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Infectious Diseases. 5569 words.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of chronic viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the world. Worldwide, more than 250 million people are chronically infected with...

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Herpes simplex Virus

Raidan Alyazidi and Soren Gantt.

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

December 2017; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Infectious Diseases. 6183 words.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 cause several important syndromes, including congenital and perinatal infections that can cause devastating consequences in newborns (i.e., neonatal...

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Varicella-Zoster Virus

Olivier Picone, Christelle Vauloup-Fellous and Laurent Mandelbrot.

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

December 2017; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Infectious Diseases. 5029 words.

Chickenpox in a pregnant woman is uncommon, but it is a major concern for patients and their families, as well as for clinicians caring for pregnant women. Varicella infection during...

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Hepatitis C Virus

Jonathan R. Honegger.

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

December 2017; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Infectious Diseases. 5609 words.

An estimated 185 million individuals have been infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Although often clinically silent for decades, chronic HCV infection predisposes to late-onset...

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Newly discovered viruses

H.C. Hughes.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 3764 words.

Although humans are affected by an enormous range of microorganisms, almost all newly discovered emerging pathogens are viruses that are often zoonotic or vector-borne. These emerging...

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