Oxford Index Search Results

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AIR

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

abbr. for. for 5‐aminoimidazole ribonucleotide, an intermediate in purine biosynthesis.

See overview in Oxford Index

Air

Howard Mandel.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2002; p ublished online January 2003 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Jazz. 311 words.

Free-jazz trio. In 1971 the alto saxophonist Henry Threadgill was asked to arrange music by the ragtime composer Scott Joplin for a theater production at Columbia College, Chicago; with the...

Air

Nigel Fortune, David Greer and Charles Dill.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Musical Form. 4327 words.

(Eng., Fr.)

A term used in England and France from the 16th century onwards, frequently and rather loosely as synonymous with ‘melody’, ‘tune’ or ‘song’.

When...

Air column

Philip Bate.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 170 words.

The body of air inside a tubular wind instrument. When a note is sounded the air column is in a state of longitudinal vibration, i.e. subject to a cyclic succession of local compressions...

Air (opera)

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet.

in Oxford Music Online

December 1992; p ublished online January 2002 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Opera. 474 words.

(Fr.: ‘song’)

A term used in French vocal music from the late 16th century, an approximate counterpart to the Italian Aria (opera) , for a solo or ensemble song, often...

Air check

in Oxford Music Online

January 2002; p ublished online January 2003 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Jazz. 39 words.

New Air

in Oxford Music Online

January 2002; p ublished online January 2003 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Jazz; Contemporary Music. 10 words.

Air à boire

John H. Baron.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 228 words.

(Fr.).

A French drinking-song. The term was used principally between the second half of the 17th century and the mid-18th century for strophic, syllabic songs whose texts are of...

Air de cour

John H. Baron.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Musical Form. 1509 words.

(Fr.)

A term used by French composers and publishers from 1571 to the 1650s to designate many secular, strophic songs sung at court. From 1608 until approximately 1632 these...

Armpit

Sally Sanford.

in Oxford Music Online

December 2014; p ublished online September 2014 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 107 words.

People, especially children, use their armpits, often humorously, to make rhythmic sounds by creating an air pocket with a wet hand held under the armpit and squeezing with the free...

Helmholtz resonator

Murray Campbell.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 362 words.

An enclosed volume communicating with the atmosphere through a relatively small aperture or neck. Such a cavity has the property of resonating over a narrow range of frequencies; the...

Lip

Robert Witmer.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2002; p ublished online January 2003 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Jazz. 120 words.

(1) The embouchure of a wind player.

(2) To alter the pitch of a note on a wind instrument by means of embouchure and air flow (that is, not by fingering); it is an essential...

Water organ

Susi Jeans.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 1592 words.

[hydraulic organ] (Fr. orgue hydraulique; Ger. Wasserorgel; Lat. organum hydraulicum)

A kind of automatic organ without bellows. It is blown and sounded by air compressed...

Overblowing

Philip Bate.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 361 words.

Technique used by woodwind players to ascend to a higher register. The Air column of a woodwind instrument is characterized by a set of natural (‘normal’) modes of vibration. A...

Sanglot

Ellen T. Harris.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 98 words.

(Fr.: ‘sob’)

A term used in the 18th and 19th centuries to refer to the expression of a sob or sigh, frequently on the word ‘hélas’. The performance always includes either a sharp...

Pipe

Howard Mayer Brown.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 247 words.

(Ger. Pfeife)

(1) Generic term for a tube, open or stopped, of wood, metal, cane or other material and with or without finger-holes. Pipes are classified as aerophones in the...

Ariette (opera)

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet.

in Oxford Music Online

December 1992; p ublished online January 2002 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Opera. 341 words.

(Fr., from It. arietta , diminutive of aria)

In French 18th-century opera, opéra-ballet and opéra comique, ariette denotes two different types of vocal solo. In the works of...

Circular breathing

Barry Kernfeld.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2002; p ublished online January 2003 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Jazz. 362 words.

A technique used principally by wind players to enable them to produce a continuous stream of notes without breaking to draw breath. The player inhales through the nose, filling the...

Sudrophone

Philip Bate.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 177 words.

A group of valved brass instruments, soprano to contrabass, invented by the Parisian maker François Sudre and patented in Paris on 18 February 1892. Although the principal length of tubing...

Piangendo

Clifford Bevan.

in Oxford Music Online

December 2014; p ublished online January 2014 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 111 words.

A device invented by Wilhelm Wieprecht (Prussian patent 10,803 of 27 Oct 1838) allowing valved brass instruments to play portamento. The principle was based on the use of a...

Resonator

Murray Campbell.

in Oxford Music Online

January 2001; p ublished online January 2001 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music. 500 words.

A body showing the property of Resonance. An important example of a musical resonator is the hollow tube hung below each bar of the modern orchestral marimba or the vibraphone. The length...