in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare. 1278 words.
Beach, Sir Richard (d. 1692), naval officer, first appears as captain of the royalist St Michael in 1651. By 1654 he was 'admiral' of a squadron of three frigates operating out of Brest,...
in Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century
January 2009 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: History. 1838 words.
Motown Records, Inc. was founded in Detroit by Berry Gordy Jr. on 12 January 1959. Originally called Tamla Records, the company became one of the most successful African American–owned...
Loewen v United States, Petition to Vacate Arbitration Award, 1:04CV02151, IIC 256 (2004), 13th December 2004, District Court for the District of Columbia [D.D.C.]
Legal Material. Subjects: Public International Law; International Law; Arbitration; Law. 7112 words.
Seas and Submerged Lands Case, New South Wales v Commonwealth, Decision,  HCA 58, (1975) 135 CLR 337, 50 ALJR 218, 8 ALR 1, ILDC 2581 (AU 1975), 17th December 1975, Australia; High Court [HCA]
Legal Material. Subjects: Law. 70467 words.
Whether sovereign rights under the Convention on the Continental Shelf and the Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone were conferred on the nation state or the nation’s...
Adjudication, Arbitration and the Turn to Public Law ‘Standards of Review’: Putting the Precautionary Principle in the Crucible
in Journal of International Dispute Settlement
November 2012; p ublished online October 2012 .
Journal Article. Subjects: Arbitration; Private International Law and Conflict of Laws; Public International Law; Settlement of Disputes. 19043 words.
There is a particular pressure for international judges and arbitrators to turn to public law ‘standards of review’ in health and environmental disputes, because they raise sensitive issues...
Methanex Corporation v United States, Final Award on Jurisdiction and Merits, (2005) 44 ILM 1345, Inside US Trade, 19 August 2005, 12, IIC 167 (2005), 3rd August 2005, Ad Hoc Tribunal [UNCITRAL]
Legal Material. Subjects: Public International Law; International Law; Arbitration; Law. 95920 words.
Whether a sufficient legal relationship existed between Methanex and the Californian measures under Article 1101 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (‘NAFTA’), and therefore, whether...
Situation in the Republic of Kenya, Prosecutor (on the application of Victims) v Ruto (William Samoei) and Sang (Joshua Arap), Decision on defence applications for judgments of acquittal, ICC-01/09-01/11-2027-Red, Case No ICC-01/09-01/11, ICL 1688 (ICC 2016), 5th April 2016, International Criminal Court [ICC]; Trial Chamber V [ICC]
Legal Material. Subjects: Law. 128505 words.
Whether there was a case to answer for Ruto and Sang.
Whether the charges against Ruto and Sang should be re-characterized.
in The Obligation to Extradite or Prosecute
March 2018 .
Chapter. Subjects: Law. 70 pages. 38758 words.
This chapter explains the theory behind, and the key characteristics of, core crimes (such as genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes) proscribed by peremptory norms (jus cogens),...
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua, Nicaragua v United States, Judgment, Merits, ICJ GL No 70,  ICJ Rep 14, ICGJ 112 (ICJ 1986), 27th June 1986, International Court of Justice [ICJ]
Legal Material. Subjects: Public International Law; International Law; Law. 234258 words.
Whether the Court should determine the claims regarding the use of force in international relations notwithstanding the exclusion from its jurisdiction of disputes ‘arising under’ the...
Tel-Oren v Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and ors, Appeal Judgment, Per Curiam, Docket No 81-1870, Docket No 81-1871, 726 F.2d 774 (D.C. Cir. 1984), 233 U.S.App.D.C. 384 (1984), ILDC 875 (US 1984), 3rd February 1984, Court of Appeals (DC Circuit) [D.C. Cir.]
Legal Material. Subjects: Public International Law; International Law; Law. 40541 words.
Whether United States courts had jurisdiction under the Alien Tort Statute over a cause of action brought by foreign victims and survivors of victims of a terrorist attack in Israel by a...
in British Yearbook of International Law
January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .
Journal Article. Subjects: Public International Law. 192423 words.