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genotoxin

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Chemistry.

A toxin that acts on DNA, often by forming an adduct, and disrupts gene function. Environmentally important examples are aromatic hydrocarbons, aflatoxin, and vinyl chloride.

See overview in Oxford Index

genotoxin

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Chemistry.

A toxin that acts on DNA, often by forming an adduct, and disrupts gene function. Environmentally important examples are aromatic hydrocarbons, aflatoxin, and vinyl chloride.

See overview in Oxford Index

genotoxin

John Lackie.

in A Dictionary of Biomedicine

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Clinical Medicine. 26 words.

A toxin that acts on DNA, often by forming an adduct, and disrupts gene function. Environmentally important examples are aromatic

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genotoxin

Edited by Richard Cammack, Teresa Atwood, Peter Campbell, Howard Parish, Anthony Smith, Frank Vella and John Stirling.

in Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

January 2006; p ublished online January 2008 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Biochemistry. 14 words.

an agent that reacts with and interferes with the action of genetic DNA.

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Genotoxins and the initiation of sporadic breast cancer

Francis L. Martin.

in Mutagenesis

March 2001; p ublished online March 2001 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics; Genetics and Genomics. 5313 words.

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed female malignancy world-wide. The aetiology of the majority of cases remains obscure and the only genotoxin as yet known to initiate breast...

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The detectioon of genotoxin-induced DNA adducts in the common mussel <i>Mytilus edulis</i>

J.S. Harvey and J.M. Parry.

in Mutagenesis

May 1997; p ublished online May 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics; Genetics and Genomics. 0 words.

In order to establish the capacity of Mytilus spp. to form genotoxin–DNA adducts, a series of in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted in which tissue samples and animals were exposed to...

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Functional and structural characterization of chimeras of a bacterial genotoxin and human type I DNAse

Joseph M. DiRienzo, Linsen Cao, Alla Volgina, Georges Bandelac and Jonathan Korostoff.

in FEMS Microbiology Letters

February 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Journal Article. 5507 words.

Abstract

Chimeras composed of the cdtB gene of a novel bacterial genotoxin and the human type I DNAse I gene were constructed and their products...

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<i>Escherichia coli</i> Uropathogenic-Specific Protein, Usp, Is a Bacteriocin-Like Genotoxin

Damijan Nipič, Zdravko Podlesek, Maruska Budič, Miha črnigoj and Darja Žgur-Bertok.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

November 2013; p ublished online August 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 4334 words.

Background.  Bacterial genotoxins provoke DNA damage and carcinogenesis. The Escherichia coli uropathogenic-specific protein gene, usp, and its...

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The Genotoxin Colibactin Exacerbates Lymphopenia and Decreases Survival Rate in Mice Infected With Septicemic <i>Escherichia coli</i>

Ingrid Marcq, Patricia Martin, Delphine Payros, Gabriel Cuevas-Ramos, Michèle Boury, Claude Watrin, Jean-Philippe Nougayrède, Maïwenn Olier and Eric Oswald.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

January 2014; p ublished online March 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 5170 words.

Sepsis is a life-threatening infection. Escherichia coli is the first known cause of bacteremia leading to sepsis. Lymphopenia was shown to predict bacteremia better than...

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The ability of the Comet assay to discriminate between genotoxins and cytotoxins

Leigh Henderson, Alison Wolfreys, Julia Fedyk, Clare Bourner and Sam Windebank.

in Mutagenesis

January 1998; p ublished online January 1998 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics; Genetics and Genomics. 0 words.

The Comet assay has been used widely in genetic toxicology, radiation biology and medical and environmental research. This assay detects single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites in DNA...

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DNA-Damaging Effects of Genotoxins in Mixture: Modulation of Covalent Binding to DNA

Matthew K. Ross, Boctor Said and Ronald C. Shank.

in Toxicological Sciences

February 2000; p ublished online February 2000 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Medical Toxicology; Toxicology (Non-medical). 7756 words.

Modulation of DNA adduct formation by pre-existing adducts was examined in synthetic oligonucleotides and genomic DNA (calf thymus); genotoxins studied were N-acetoxy-acetylaminofluorene...

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DNA-damaging effects of genotoxins in mixture: nonadditive effects of aflatoxin B1 and N-acetylaminofluorene on their mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium.

B Said, M K Ross, A K Hamade, D C Matsumoto and R C Shank.

in Toxicological Sciences

December 1999; p ublished online December 1999 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Medical Toxicology; Toxicology (Non-medical). 0 words.

Most animal genotoxicity studies have used exposures to single chemicals; humans, however, are potentially exposed to mixtures of genotoxins. Cancer and developmental toxicity risks...

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Effects of oleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid on background and genotoxin-induced frequencies of SCEs in Indian muntjac fibroblasts

Siobhán Higgins, M. Helena Vasconcelos and Nora M.O'Brien.

in Mutagenesis

May 1999; p ublished online May 1999 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics; Genetics and Genomics. 3763 words.

Muntjac cells were cultured at 5×105 cells/10 cm Petri dish for 24 h prior to addition of fatty acids (50 μM) which were delivered to the cells complexed with 2% bovine serum albumin (fatty...

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High iron supply inhibits the synthesis of the genotoxin colibactin by pathogenic <i>Escherichia coli</i> through a non-canonical Fur/RyhB-mediated pathway

Sophie Tronnet, Christophe Garcie, Alexander O. Brachmann, Jörn Piel, Eric Oswald and Patricia Martin.

in Pathogens and Disease

P ublished online June 2017 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Biotechnology; Genetics and Genomics; Microbiology; Molecular and Cell Biology. 4327 words.

Abstract

The genotoxin colibactin is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of pathogenic Enterobacteria, and is associated with colon cancer development...

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Effects of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides on colonic luminal environment and genotoxin-induced apoptosis in the rat

R.K. Le Leu, Y. Hu and G.P. Young.

in Carcinogenesis

May 2002; p ublished online May 2002 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics. 5842 words.

Fermentation of polysaccharides in the colon seems likely to regulate tumorigenesis but the mechanisms are unclear. A possible mechanism may be through facilitation of the acute apoptotic...

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The Bacterial Stress-Responsive Hsp90 Chaperone (HtpG) Is Required for the Production of the Genotoxin Colibactin and the Siderophore Yersiniabactin in <i>Escherichia coli</i>

Christophe Garcie, Sophie Tronnet, Amélie Garénaux, Alex J. McCarthy, Alexander O. Brachmann, Marie Pénary, Sébastien Houle, Jean-Philippe Nougayrède, Jörn Piel, Peter W. Taylor, Charles M. Dozois, Pierre Genevaux, Eric Oswald and Patricia Martin.

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

September 2016; p ublished online July 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Infectious Diseases; Immunology; Public Health and Epidemiology; Microbiology. 5595 words.

The genotoxin colibactin, synthesized by Escherichia coli, is a secondary metabolite belonging to the chemical family of hybrid polyketide/nonribosomal peptide compounds. It is produced by...

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Effect of resistant starch on genotoxin-induced apoptosis, colonic epithelium, and lumenal contents in rats

Richard K. Le Leu, Ian L. Brown, Ying Hu and Graeme P. Young.

in Carcinogenesis

August 2003; p ublished online August 2003 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics. 4898 words.

The effect of different doses of a type-2 resistant starch (RS) in the form of high amylose cornstarch (HAS) on the intralumenal environment and the acute-apoptotic response to a genotoxic...

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Excision repair is required for genotoxin-induced mutagenesis in mammalian cells

Bradford Brooks, Travis J. O'Brien, Susan Ceryak, John Pierce Wise, Sandra S. Wise, John Pierce Wise, Edward DeFabo and Steven R. Patierno.

in Carcinogenesis

May 2008; p ublished online March 2008 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics. 4863 words.

Certain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human lung carcinogens. Although much is known about Cr-induced DNA damage, very little is known about mechanisms of Cr(VI) mutagenesis...

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Correlation between biomarkers of human exposure to genotoxins with focus on carcinogen–DNA adducts

Erika Győrffy, Lívia Anna, Katalin Kovács, Péter Rudnai and Bernadette Schoket.

in Mutagenesis

January 2008; p ublished online November 2007 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics; Genetics and Genomics. 11231 words.

Correlations among biomarkers, an important issue in biomarker research, provide enhanced insight and understanding of the complexity of molecular mechanisms initiated by environmental...

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Genetic interactions between protein phosphatases CaPtc2p and CaPph3p in response to genotoxins and rapamycin in <i>Candida albicans</i>

Jinrong Feng, Yunying Zhao, Yinong Duan and Linghuo Jiang.

in FEMS Yeast Research

February 2013; p ublished online May 2013 .

Journal Article. 6636 words.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, both of the two PP2C protein phosphatases ScPtc2p and ScPtc3p and the PP4 protein phosphatase ScPph3 are responsible for ScRad53p dephosphorylation after...

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An investigation into the activation and deactivation of chlorinated hydrocarbons to genotoxins in metabolically competent human cells

Ann T. Doherty, Sian Ellard, Elizabeth M. Parry and J.M. Parry.

in Mutagenesis

May 1996 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics; Genetics and Genomics. 0 words.

We have investigated the induction of micronuclei by 15 chlorinated hydrocarbons in the cytochalasin B-blocked micronucleus assay utilizing genetically engineered cell lines. The human...

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