Book

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Edited by David P. Forsythe

Published in print January 2009 | ISBN: 9780195334029
Published online January 2009 | e-ISBN: 9780195336887 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acref/9780195334029.001.0001
Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Adolf Hitler

Gerhard L. Weinberg.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 3021 words.

The man who would become one of the twentieth century's most important opponents of the concept of human rights was

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Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

Francisco López-Bermúdez and Daniella Sforza Ana Lucía Córdova.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 3897 words.

In 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, human rights activist and proponent of nonviolence, became both the second Argentinean and Latin

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Afghanistan

Christa Meindersma.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 7721 words.

Since 1979 Afghanistan has been the scene of conflict involving foreign occupation and interference, resulting in more than a million

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African Union

Rachel Murray and Rachel Murray.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 9913 words.

[This entry contains two subentries, Banjul Charter and Commission and Court on Human Rights.]

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AIDS/HIV

Amy S. Patterson.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 8225 words.

According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), in 2005 an estimated 38.6 million people worldwide were infected

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Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (b. 11 December 1918)

Neil Robinson.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 2708 words.

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (b. 11 December 1918; d.3 August 2008)

was arguably the greatest Russian writer of

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Algerian War

Rita Maran.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 7568 words.

The Algerian War was a major event in international relations and in human rights, and its lessons continue to be

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Amartya Sen

Howard B. Tolley.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 3073 words.

Characterized by some admirers as “the Mother Teresa of economics,” Amartya Sen dispensed liberal social choice theory developed in his

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American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

William J. Aceves.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 3625 words.

Although the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) was founded in 1920, its roots extend back to at

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American Revolution

Ari Kohen and Sara W. Lunsford.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 3337 words.

When thinking about the American Revolution, one is soon confronted by the puzzle of precisely which revolution is up for

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Amnesty International

Peter R. Baehr.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 5157 words.

As of 2008, Amnesty International (AI) is the largest international nongovernmental organization (NGO) in the field of

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Andrei Sakharov

Neil Robinson.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 2578 words.

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was born on 21 May 1921 in Moscow; his family was a part of the intelligentsia, the

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Angola

Ana Leao.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 4740 words.

Angola, considered the seventh largest country in Africa, overlooks the West African coast. Under Portuguese colonial administration from the late

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Anti-Slavery International

Claude E. Welch.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 6021 words.

Anti-Slavery International (often simply referred to as Anti-Slavery) justly claims to be the world's oldest continuous human rights organization. Founded

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Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Peter Balakian.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 8952 words.

The Armenians emerged as a distinct culture in the sixth century bce and inhabited an area that in the early

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Art and Images

Caroline Turner.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 7916 words.

The European Court of Human Rights has declared that “those who create, perform, distribute or exhibit works of art contribute

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Article 19

Peter Noorlander.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 3323 words.

Article 19 (spelled here as Article 19) is an international human rights organization that defends and promotes freedom of expression

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Arvonne Fraser

David Weissbrodt.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 2479 words.

Arvonne Fraser has been a pioneer in women's human rights and social justice who has challenged women, politicians, world leaders,

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Aryeh Neier

Alfred de Zayas.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 2067 words.

Since 1993 Aryeh Neier has been president of the Open Society Institute (OSI) within the Soros Foundation Network,

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Kenneth Christie.

in Encyclopedia of Human Rights

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Human Rights and Immigration. 4557 words.

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization based in Southeast Asia. This article begins

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