Book

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

Ted Honderich

Published in print January 2005 | ISBN: 9780199264797
Published online January 2005 | e-ISBN: 9780191727474 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acref/9780199264797.001.0001
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

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abandonment

Thomas Baldwin.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 146 words.

A rhetorical term used by existentialist philosophers such as Heidegger and Sartre to describe the absence of any sources of

abduction

C. J. Hookway.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 154 words.

Abductive reasoning accepts a conclusion on the grounds that it explains the available evidence. The term was introduced by Charles

Abelard, Peter (1079–1142)

Alexander Broadie.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 290 words.

(1079–1142).

Most widely known for his love affair with Héloïse, about which we learn a good deal

ableism

James P. Sterba.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 117 words.

Prejudice against people with disabilities, which can take many forms. It can take the form of a prejudice against using

abortion

Peter Singer.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 635 words.

Human beings develop gradually inside women's bodies. The death of a newly fertilized human egg does not seem the same

Absolute, the

T. L. S. Sprigge.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 112 words.

That which has an unconditioned existence, not conditioned by, relative to, or dependent upon anything else. Usually deemed to be

absolutism, moral

Richard Norman.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 589 words.

The view that certain kinds of actions are always wrong or are always obligatory, whatever the consequences. Typical candidates for

abstract entities

Alexander D. Oliver.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 143 words.

The dichotomy between the abstract and the concrete is supposed to effect a mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive ontological classification.

abstract ideas

Ted Honderich.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 4 words.

abstract particulars

Ted Honderich.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 5 words.

abstraction

Stephen Priest.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 212 words.

A putative psychological process for the acquisition of a concept x either by attending to the features common to all

absurd, the

Thomas Baldwin.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 195 words.

A term used by existentialists to describe that which one might have thought to be amenable to reason but which

academic freedom

Anthony O'Hear.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 121 words.

An integral aspect of open societies, academic freedom is the right of teachers in universities and other sectors of education

Academy, the

Lloyd P. Gerson.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 214 words.

The educational institution founded by Plato, probably around 387 bc, so-called because of its location at a site

access, privileged

Ted Honderich.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 5 words.

accident

Jack Macintosh.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 196 words.

The term ‘accident’ in philosophy has two main uses, both stemming from Aristotle. In the first an accident is

Achilles paradox

Mark Sainsbury.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 160 words.

A paradox of motion, due to Zeno of Elea. In a race, Achilles can never catch the tortoise, if

acquaintance and description

Mark Sainsbury.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 201 words.

A distinction between two kinds of knowledge, crucial to Russell's philosophy, and analogous to that between connaître and savoir.

action

Jennifer Hornsby.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 819 words.

An action is sometimes defined as someone's doing something intentionally. The phenomenon of human action owes its importance both to

action at a distance

Lawrence Sklar.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 197 words.

That one event could have direct causal influence on another spatially separated from it without causation being propagated continuously from