Book

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Edited by André Vauchez

Published by James Clarke & Co

Published in print January 2002 | ISBN: 9780227679319
Published online January 2005 | e-ISBN: 9780195188172 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acref/9780227679319.001.0001
Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

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Aachen

Geneviève Bührer-Thierry.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 477 words.

Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) is situated to the north of the Eifel massif. Its hot springs were known to the Romans, who

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Abbasids

Dominique Sourdel.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 790 words.

The Muslim Arab dynasty of the Abbasids ruled a large part of the Islamic lands in the East from 749

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Abbess

Maria Cristina Buschi.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 611 words.

A word derived from Late Latin abbatissa, in turn formed by analogy from abbas (abbot father): title of

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abbey

Noëlle Deflou.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 488 words.

An abbey was a group of buildings occupied by a regular religious community, and was always directed, unlike a convent

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Abbo of Fleury (c.940–1004)

Dominique Iogna-Prat.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 590 words.

(c.940–1004)

Born in the Orléanais, Abbo was offered very young by his parents to the monastery of

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Abbo of Saint-Germain

Michel Banniard.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 193 words.

(9th c.)

A strange war correspondent, Abbo, a monk of the monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, described the siege of

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Abbot

Michel Parisse.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 492 words.

The term abba, used to designate the superior of a religious community, means “father” and already contains in itself

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Abbreviator

Agostino Paravicini Bagliani.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 116 words.

Attested from the 13th c., the abbreviators (abreviator or breviator) were clerics in charge of drawing up minutes,

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ʼAbdisho of Nisibis (1318)

Micheline Albert.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 142 words.

(died 1318)

Metropolitan bishop of Nisibis (now Nusaybin, South-East Turkey) and Armenia, he was the last of the

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abduction

Régine le Jan.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 428 words.

All the Germanic laws condemned the abduction of young girls, widows and nuns. Certain laws imposed separation, or else

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abecedarium

Pierre Riché.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 241 words.

Elementary teaching in Antiquity and the Middle Ages consisted in learning firstly to read the letters of the alphabet. Exceptionally

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Abelard, Peter (1079–1142)

Jacques Verger.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 1449 words.

(1079–1142)

Peter Abelard was born at Le Pallet, near Nantes. According to his autobiography (History of my

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Aberdeen

Alan Macquarrie.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 179 words.

According to late medieval tradition, a bishopric was transferred from Mortlach (in Strathspey, Grampian Region) to Aberdeen in the 12th

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abjuration

Patrick Henriet.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 110 words.

In its most widespread sense, abjuration is the solemn renunciation of a heterodox doctrine. In the Middle Ages,

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ablution

Guy-Marie Oury.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 160 words.

The rite by which, after communion, the priest washed the chalice and paten used for the mass, and

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Abraham

Yolanta Zaluska.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 706 words.

The Old Testament patriarch Abraham is a character of the first importance in Genesis (14 chapters out of 50 are

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Abraham Bar Hiyya (c.1065–1145)

Tony Lévy.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 211 words.

(c.1065–1145)

Mathematician, astronomer-astrologer and philosopher of neoplatonist inspiration, Bar Hiyya, who perfectly mastered the Arabic language

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Abraham ibn da'ud (c.1180)

Gilbert Dahan.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 120 words.

(early 12th c. – c.1180)

Jewish philosopher, born at Cordova, Abraham Ibn Da'ud lived mainly at Toledo

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Abraham ibn Ezra (1089)

Michel Serfaty.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 165 words.

(1089–1164/1165)

Poet, grammarian, biblical exegete, philosopher, mathematician-astronomer and physician, Abraham ibn Ezra was born

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Abraham's Bosom

Jérôme Baschet.

in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500). 510 words.

The conception of the dwelling of the just after death as a reunion with Abraham, the Old Testament patriarch,

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