Journal Article

Estrogen, natriuretic peptides and the renin–angiotensin system<sup>1</sup>

Mercedes L Kuroski de Bold

in Cardiovascular Research

Published on behalf of European Society of Cardiology

Volume 41, issue 3, pages 524-531
Published in print March 1999 | ISSN: 0008-6363
Published online March 1999 | e-ISSN: 1755-3245 | DOI:
Estrogen, natriuretic peptides and the renin–angiotensin system1

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There are significant gender-specific differences in the incidence of hypertension and the clinical outcome of cardiovascular disease between premenopausal women and age-matched men, suggesting that sex hormones such as estrogen (E) might be responsible for the observed cardioprotective effects. This cardioprotective action of E is thought to involve lipoproteins. However, the effect of E on the lipid profile accounts for about 50% of the reduction in cardiovascular disease, indicating that there might be other mechanisms by which E exerts its cardioprotective effects. At present, the underlying mechanism of E action is poorly understood. In this review, the interplay between E, the natriuretic peptides (NP) and the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is examined. It is hypothesized that E might, through endocrine and/or paracrine action, modulate cardiac NP in females by affecting the RAS either directly or indirectly.

Keywords: Hormones; Hypertension; Natriuretic peptide; Renin–angiotensin system

Journal Article.  6268 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Cardiovascular Medicine

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