The first part of this chapter discusses the conditions under which a factor can confound the association between exposure and disease, and the conditions under which this cannot occur. It also differentiates confounders from antecedents or mediators. The next part discusses methods devised to neutralize the effects of confounders. Two standard methods are presented: matching to prevent confounding in the data by equalizing the exposed and the unexposed on a potential confounder, and statistical adjustment to compensate for confounding in the data by separating the effects of the exposure from the effects of the confounder.
Keywords: factors; exposure; disease; confounders; cohort studies; antecedents; mediators
Chapter. 5395 words. Illustrated.
Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology ; Medical Statistics and Methodology
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