Chapter

Local translation in dendrites

Irena Vlatkovic and Erin M. Schuman

in Dendrites

Third edition

Published in print March 2016 | ISBN: 9780198745273
Published online May 2016 | e-ISBN: 9780191819735 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198745273.003.0005
Local translation in dendrites

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Neurons are unique among cells with their highly polarized and elaborate dendritic and axonal arbors. Synapses, the sites of communication, are located from microns up to a meter from the cell body and rely on proteins for communication and plasticity. In order to acquire proteins to replace those that turn over and to modify synapses, neurons use mRNAs and local protein synthesis. Local translation from dendritically localized mRNAs provides the possibility for rapid and localized response of the neuron to outside stimuli. This chapter reviews and discusses the evidence for local translation in dendrites, its regulation, roles in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory as well as how it is dysregulated in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. A number of technologies that are used, or could be used, to deepen our understanding of the contribution of local translation to neuronal function are presented.

Keywords: local translation; mRNA; synapses; synaptic plasticity; neuronal function; technologies; neurodegenerative disorders

Chapter.  14199 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neuroscience

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