Journal Article

Overland and By Sea: Eight Centuries of the Jewish Presence in China

Irene Eber

in Chinese Journal of International Law

Volume 4, issue 1, pages 235-256
Published in print June 2005 | ISSN: 1540-1650
Published online June 2005 | e-ISSN: 1746-9937 | DOI:

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The several Jewish communities discussed are those in Kaifeng and in Shanghai. The presence of the earlier and the later settlers raises several questions. How did the Kaifeng Jews retain their identity as Jews for several centuries while becoming part of Chinese society? Whereas the initial group of arrivals in Shanghai consisted of traders, the twentieth-century groups were refugees. Why were large numbers of Central European Jews able to land in Shanghai when most countries closed their doors to them?

Journal Article.  12353 words. 

Subjects: International Law