Journal Article

H5N1 Avian Influenza in Children

Ahmet Faik Oner, Nazim Dogan, Viktor Gasimov, Wiku Adisasmito, Richard Coker, Paul K. S. Chan, Nelson Lee, Owen Tsang, Wanna Hanshaoworakul, Mukhtiar Zaman, Ebun Bamgboye, Anna Swenson, Stephen Toovey and Nancy A. Dreyer

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 55, issue 1, pages 26-32
Published in print July 2012 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online March 2012 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI:
H5N1 Avian Influenza in Children

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Background. Avian influenza continues to pose a threat to humans and maintains the potential for greater transmissibility. Understanding the clinical presentation and prognosis in children will help guide effective diagnosis and treatment.

Methods. A global patient registry was created to enable systematic collection of clinical, exposure, treatment, and outcomes data on confirmed cases of H5N1. Bivariate and multivariate statistical tools were used to describe clinical presentation and evaluate factors prognostic of survival.

Results. Data were available from 13 countries on 193 children <18 years who were confirmed as having been infected with H5N1; 35.2% of cases were from Egypt. The case fatality rate (CFR) for children was 48.7%, with Egypt having a very low pediatric CFR. Overall, children aged ≤5 years had the lowest CFR and were brought to hospitals more quickly and treated sooner than older children. Children who presented for medical care with a complaint of rhinorrhea had a 76% reduction in the likelihood of death compared with those who presented without rhinorrhea, even after statistical adjustment for age, having been infected in Egypt, and oseltamivir treatment (P = .02). Delayed initiation of treatment with oseltamivir increases the likelihood of death, with an overall 75% increase in the adjusted odds ratio for death for each day of delay.

Conclusions. The presence of rhinorrhea appears to indicate a better prognosis for children with H5N1, with most patients surviving regardless of age, country, or treatment. For individuals treated with oseltamivir, early initiation of treatment substantially enhances the chance of survival.

Journal Article.  3992 words. 

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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