Journal Article

Gingival labial recessions and the post-treatment proclination of mandibular incisors

Anne-Marie Renkema, Zuzanna Navratilova, Katerina Mazurova, Christos Katsaros and Piotr S. Fudalej

in European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontic Society

Volume 37, issue 5, pages 508-513
Published in print October 2015 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online December 2014 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Gingival labial recessions and the post-treatment proclination of mandibular incisors

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A prerequisite for development of gingival recession is the presence of alveolar bone dehiscence. Proclination of mandibular incisors can result in thinning of the alveolus and dehiscence formation.


To assess an association between proclination of mandibular incisor and development of gingival recession.


One hundred and seventeen subjects who met the following inclusion criteria were selected: 1. age 11–14 years at start of orthodontic treatment (TS), 2. bonded retainer placed immediately after treatment (T0), 3. dental casts and lateral cephalograms available pre-treatment (TS), post-treatment (T0), and 5 years post-treatment (T5), and 4. post-treatment (T0) lower incisor inclination (Inc_Incl) <95° or >100.5°. Two groups were formed: non-proclined (N = 57; mean Inc_Incl = 90.8°) and proclined (N = 60; mean Inc_Incl = 105.2°). Clinical crown heights of mandibular incisors and the presence of gingival recession sites in this region were assessed on plaster models. Fisher’s exact tests, t-tests, and regression models were computed for analysis of inter-group differences.


The mean increase of clinical crown heights (from T0 to T5) of mandibular incisors ranged from 0.75 to 0.83mm in the non-proclined and proclined groups, respectively (P = 0.273). At T5, gingival recession sites were present in 12.3% and 11.7% patients from the non-proclined and proclined groups, respectively. The difference was also not significant (P = 0.851).


The proclination of mandibular incisors did not increase a risk of development of gingival recession during five-year observation in comparison non-proclined teeth.

Journal Article.  4741 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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