Reference Entry

Gardner, Alexander

Makeda Best

in Oxford Art Online

ISBN: 9780195373219
Published online January 2003 | e-ISBN: 9781884446054 | DOI:
Gardner, Alexander

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  • Photography and Photographs
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(b Paisley, Scotland, Oct 17, 1821; d Washington, DC, Dec 11, 1882).

American photographer of Scottish birth. Following his father’s death around 1828, Gardner’s family relocated to Glasgow, where he assisted his mother in operating the family grocery business before beginning a jewellery apprenticeship. He worked briefly in banking, managing the Cyldesdale Joint Stock Agricultural and Commercial Company. At the time, the industrial revolution was transforming Glasgow, and civic leaders struggled to mitigate economic and social tensions. Gardner became interested in radical politics, and he and other Scots designed a cooperative community to be located in north-east Iowa. In 1850 he purchased and revived the struggling Socialist-leaning paper, The Glasgow Sentinel. His opinion pieces promoted the paper’s causes such as education and social reforms. Gardner probably planned to immigrate with his family to the United States and join the Iowa cooperative. However, the community dissolved soon after the first settlers arrived, most likely impacted by the emergence of cholera in the region around ...

Reference Entry.  1085 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Photography and Photographs ; Art of the United States ; 19th-Century Art

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