Reference Entry


in Oxford Art Online

ISBN: 9780195335798
Published online January 2003 | e-ISBN: 9781884446054 | DOI:

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[The Architects Collaborative]

American architectural partnership formed in 1945 by Walter Gropius, Norman Collings Fletcher (b Providence, RI, 8 Dec 1917; d Rockport, ME, 31 May 2007), Jean Bodman Fletcher (b 1915; d 13 Sept 1965), John Cheesman Harkness (b New York City, 30 Nov 1916), Sarah Pillsbury Harkness (b Swampscott, MA, 8 July 1914), Robert Senseman MacMillan (b Hibbing, MN, 4 April 1916; d 14 March 2001), Louis Albert McMillen (b St Louis, MO, 24 Oct 1916; d Danvers, MA, 4 May 1998), and Benjamin Thompson (b St Paul, MN, 3 July 1918; d Cambridge, MA, 17 Aug 2002). Although Gropius was Professor of Architecture at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, where the group was formed, the majority were graduates of the School of Architecture at Yale University, New Haven, CT. The partnership’s original design philosophy reflected Gropius’s central preoccupations, particularly the social responsibilities of architecture and the unity between aesthetics and technology. The partnership was organized cooperatively, with profit-sharing and democratic decision-making. Unlike the specialized roles that developed in most architectural partnerships, members of TAC were intended to become architectural all-rounders through an exchange of knowledge. The group’s motto, ‘teamwork by individualists’, reflected the fact that final design decisions could be taken by individual partners. The collaborative method, essentially involving small teams working on separate projects within a shared general outlook, ensured considerable productivity over many decades. Six Moon Hill, a small community of modernist houses they designed for themselves on 20 acres in Lexington, MA, begun in ...

Reference Entry.  722 words. 

Subjects: Architecture ; Art of the United States ; 20th-Century Art

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