Journal Article

First-in-Human Randomized, Controlled Trial of Mosaic HIV-1 Immunogens Delivered via a Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vector

Lindsey R Baden, Stephen R Walsh, Michael S Seaman, Yehuda Z Cohen, Jennifer A Johnson, J Humberto Licona, Rachel D Filter, Jane A Kleinjan, Jon A Gothing, Julia Jennings, Lauren Peter, Joseph Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Erica N Borducchi, Marinela Kirilova, Kathryn E Stephenson, Poonam Pegu, Michael A Eller, Hung V Trinh, Mangala Rao, Julie A Ake, Michal Sarnecki, Steven Nijs, Katleen Callewaert, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Jenny Hendriks, Maria G Pau, Frank Tomaka, Bette T Korber, Galit Alter, Raphael Dolin, Patricia L Earl, Bernard Moss, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb and Dan H Barouch

in The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 218, issue 4, pages 633-644
Published in print July 2018 | ISSN: 0022-1899
Published online April 2018 | e-ISSN: 1537-6613 | DOI:

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  • Infectious Diseases
  • Immunology
  • Public Health and Epidemiology
  • Microbiology


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Mosaic immunogens are bioinformatically engineered human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences designed to elicit clade-independent coverage against globally circulating HIV-1 strains.


This phase 1, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled healthy HIV-uninfected adults who received 2 doses of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)–vectored HIV-1 bivalent mosaic immunogen vaccine or placebo on days 0 and 84. Two groups were enrolled: those who were HIV-1 vaccine naive (n = 15) and those who had received an HIV-1 vaccine (Ad26.ENVA.01) 4–6 years earlier (n = 10). We performed prespecified blinded cellular and humoral immunogenicity analyses at days 0, 14, 28, 84, 98, 112, 168, 270, and 365.


All 50 planned vaccinations were administered. Vaccination was safe and generally well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. Both cellular and humoral cross-clade immune responses were elicited after 1 or 2 vaccinations in all participants in the HIV-1 vaccine–naive group. Env-specific responses were induced after a single immunization in nearly all subjects who had previously received the prototype Ad26.ENVA.01 vaccine.


No safety concerns were identified, and multiclade HIV-1–specific immune responses were elicited.

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Keywords: HIV vaccine; mosaic immunogens; safety; immunogenicity; modified vaccinia Ankara

Journal Article.  5867 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology