Journal Article

Antimicrobial resistance in Cairo, Egypt 1999–2000: a survey of five hospitals

Amani El Kholy, Hadia Baseem, Geraldine S. Hall, Gary W. Procop and David L. Longworth

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Published on behalf of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Volume 51, issue 3, pages 625-630
Published in print March 2003 | ISSN: 0305-7453
Published online March 2003 | e-ISSN: 1460-2091 | DOI:
Antimicrobial resistance in Cairo, Egypt 1999–2000: a survey of  five hospitals

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  • Medical Oncology
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Antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens is a global problem, but in Egypt data are sparse. We reviewed the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bloodstream isolates of Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli in five hospitals in Cairo, Egypt, from 1999 to 2000. In addition, susceptibilities of non-bloodstream isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus spp. were analysed. High rates of resistance were found in most of the bacteria studied. In the hospitals, a variety of methods were used for identification and susceptibility testing, but in the laboratories quality controlled strains were utilized routinely, to ensure accurate performance of the assays. Only 29% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 23% of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were oxacillin susceptible. Both groups of staphylococci were also highly resistant to erythromycin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin and doxycycline; all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolates to penicillin, ceftriaxone and fluoroquinolones was 63%, 84% and 82%, respectively. Vancomycin susceptibility of the enterococci was 96%; susceptibility to high-level gentamicin and streptomycin was 54% and 48%, respectively. Resistance to most relevant antimicrobials was commonplace among the Gram-negative bacilli; however, most remained susceptible to imipenem. The percentage of bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli susceptible to common antimicrobial agents was as follows: ampicillin (6%), ampicillin–sulbactam (38%), co-trimoxazole (38%) and aminoglycosides (52%). The susceptibility of isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella and Enterobacter spp. to ceftazidime was 62%, 40% and 46%, respectively. This suggests a potentially high rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or Amp-C enzyme production. These results call for a nationwide surveillance programme to monitor microbial trends and antimicrobial resistance patterns in Egypt.

Keywords: Keywords: resistance, Egypt, bacterial susceptibility testing, Gram-negative bacilli, Gram-positive cocci

Journal Article.  3633 words. 

Subjects: Medical Oncology ; Critical Care

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