Journal Article

Oseltamivir in human avian influenza infection

James R. Smith

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Published on behalf of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Volume 65, issue suppl_2, pages ii25-ii33
Published in print April 2010 | ISSN: 0305-7453
Published online April 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2091 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkq013
Oseltamivir in human avian influenza infection

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  • Medical Oncology
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Avian influenza A viruses continue to cause disease outbreaks in humans, and extrapulmonary infection is characteristic. In vitro studies demonstrate the activity of oseltamivir against avian viruses of the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. In animal models of lethal infection, oseltamivir treatment and prophylaxis limit viral replication and improve survival. Outcomes are influenced by the virulence of the viral strain, dosage regimen and treatment delay; it is also critical for the compound to act systemically. Observational data on oseltamivir treatment in the early stages of disease suggest it is useful for improving survival in patients infected with H5 viruses, and drug-selected resistance has only rarely been reported. The WHO strongly recommends oseltamivir for the treatment of confirmed or suspected cases of human H5 infection and prophylaxis of those at high risk of infection. In addition to oral dosing, nasogastric administration appears to be a viable option for the management of severely ill patients, as is the use of higher doses and prolonged schedules. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, the manufacturer of oseltamivir, is developing a mathematical model to allow rapid prediction of appropriate dosage regimens for any future pandemic. Roche is also funding the Avian Influenza Registry, an online database that aims to collect information from clinicians worldwide on the course of avian influenza in humans.

Keywords: H5N1; treatment; prophylaxis; clinical; pre-clinical

Journal Article.  6029 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Oncology ; Critical Care

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