Journal Article

Germination of photoblastic lettuce seeds is regulated via the control of endogenous physiologically active gibberellin content, rather than of gibberellin responsiveness

Yoshiaki Sawada, Takumi Katsumata, Jun Kitamura, Hiroshi Kawaide, Masatoshi Nakajima, Tadao Asami, Kentaro Nakaminami, Toshihiro Kurahashi, Wataru Mitsuhashi, Yasunori Inoue and Tomonobu Toyomasu

in Journal of Experimental Botany

Published on behalf of Society for Experimental Biology

Volume 59, issue 12, pages 3383-3393
Published in print September 2008 | ISSN: 0022-0957
Published online July 2008 | e-ISSN: 1460-2431 | DOI:

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Phytochrome regulates lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) seed germination via the control of the endogenous level of bioactive gibberellin (GA). In addition to the previously identified LsGA20ox1, LsGA20ox2, LsGA3ox1, LsGA3ox2, LsGA2ox1, and LsGA2ox2, five cDNAs were isolated from lettuce seeds: LsCPS, LsKS, LsKO1, LsKO2, and LsKAO. Using an Escherichia coli expression system and functional assays, it is shown that LsCPS and LsKS encode ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase, respectively. Using a Pichia pastoris system, it was found that LsKO1 and LsKO2 encode ent-kaurene oxidases and LsKAO encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase. A comprehensive expression analysis of GA metabolism genes using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction suggested that transcripts of LsGA3ox1 and LsGA3ox2, both of which encode GA 3-oxidase for GA activation, were primarily expressed in the hypocotyl end of lettuce seeds, were expressed at much lower levels than the other genes tested, and were potently up-regulated by phytochrome. Furthermore, LsDELLA1 and LsDELLA2 cDNAs that encode DELLA proteins, which act as negative regulators in the GA signalling pathway, were isolated from lettuce seeds. The transcript levels of these two genes were little affected by light. Lettuce seeds in which de novo GA biosynthesis was suppressed responded almost identically to exogenously applied GA, irrespective of the light conditions, suggesting that GA responsiveness is not significantly affected by light in lettuce seeds. It is proposed that lettuce seed germination is regulated mainly via the control of the endogenous content of bioactive GA, rather than the control of GA responsiveness.

Keywords: Germination; gibberellin metabolism; gibberellin signalling; lettuce

Journal Article.  6551 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry

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